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INTERNATIONAL 



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PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


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Paris, Friday, April 1, 1994 


No. 34451 


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Berlusconi Brings ‘Intuitive 9 Business Style to Politics 


By Alan Friedman 

International Herald Tribune 

MILAN — It is in the middle of the night, 
while seated with a dozen friends and advis- 
era in the di ning room of his IStb-century 
villa on the outskirts of Milan that Silvio 
Berlusconi makes some of the most impor- 
tant business decisions of bis life. 

YeL, contrary to Mr. Berlusconi’s public 
image as a man who shoots from the hip, 
members of his inner circle of business asso- 
ciates say he can be agonizingly slow when it 
comes to making a big decision. They say his 
decisi on - mak i n g tends to occur after lengthy 
and freewheeling sessions, often involving 
abundant quantities of food and wine, joke- 
telling and endless chatter about the Milan 
AC soccer Irani that re mains his proudest 
possession. 

Old friends, including a handful who de- 
scribed Mr. Berlusconi's approach to busi- 


ness on condition they not be named, laugh- 
ingly refer to these talkathons at the 70-room 
Villa San Martino as “the psychoanalytic 
therapy” meetings. . 

The Berlusconi executive style, say col- 
leagues, is thus a great deal looser than one 
would normally find in a company with $7 
billion of annual revenues. The question be- 
ing asked both in Italy and elsewhere in 
Europe is how that style mil translate into bis 
role as Italy's leader if, as expected, be be- 
comes prime minister. 

The portrait that emerges from conversa- 
tions with friends, rivals, employees, and crit- 
ics is of a self-made man who likes to think 
strategically and is bored by detail. He is 
zealous in keeping his affairs closely hdd, 
and yet minimally involved in the financial 
management of Fininvest, his commercial 
television, publishing, retailing, advertising, 
and real estate empire. 


Those who know him well say that Silvio 
Berlusconi's success is based on a sharp and 
intuitive sense of what the public wants. 

Although an admirer of things American, 
he is an exponent of Italy's traditional family 
capitalism. As defined by Mr. Berlusconi, 
that has meam building an enormous compa- 
ny but not floating any of it on the stock 

Italy’s neofasdsts try to be respectable, but 
the Mussofiai period haunts them, Page 2. 

exchange. By preferring private ownership, 
be has sacrificed access to equity capital and 
thus accumulated a debt mountain now more 
than triple Finin vest’s net equity. 

Critics worry about what kind of financial 
discipline Mr. Berlusconi will bring to the 
problems of Italy’s debt-ridden public sector, 
but his aides insist he has taken steps to 
contain his private company problems and 


mil be committed to doing the same when 
running the whole of Italy. 

In his business career, starting with proper- 
ty development in the late 1 960s and continu- 
ing with his shift into commercial television a 
decade later, Mr. Berlusconi has tended to 
have original ideas, and an acute sense of 
timing. At the same time, and despite his 
public image as a spontaneous and charis- 
matic populist, he has a tendency to be ex- 
ceedingly tentative, cautious, even overly an- 
alytical about important affairs, preferring to 
let consensus build among his advisers rather 

than r ammin g throu gh a decision. 

“Silvio Likes to turn things over, again and 
again," says a dose aide. “He is very creative, 
but he is not somebody wbo takes decisions 
quickly.” 

It was, for example, after endless delibera- 

See LEADER, Page 2 



. . *0/ *91 

Source: Fmiovost 


IHT 


Israel and PLO in Accord 
On Resuming Peace Talks 

1 60 International Observers to Patrol 
Hebron in Aftermath of Mosque Killings 



HMTIlft 

Y"«IF1E|i 


By David Hoffman 

Washington Past Service 

JERUSALEM — Israel and the Palestine 
Liberation Organization signed an agreement 
Thursday to station 160 international observers 
in Hebron in the aftermath of the February 
massacre and to resume negotiations an the 
Gaza-Jericho peace accord. 

Israel pledged in the agreement to speed up 
the military withdrawal from Gaza and Jericho 
in an effort to meet the April 13 target date set 
in last year's peace accord. 

Meanwhile, a 28-year-old Israeli was stabbed 
to death Thursday made Israel, and Ms assail- 
ants left a letter in Arabic saying it was “a 
terrorist attack,” police said. A 70-year-old 
man who was assaulted with axes earner this 
week by two Palestinians died of Ms wounds. 

In Krryat Aiba, the Jewish settlement adja- 
cent lo Hebron, several thousand Israelis, large- 
ly settlers and ultraorthodox Jews, held a rally 
to mark the 26th anniversary of Jewish settle- 
ment in Hebron and to denounce the current 
government of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. 

They carried banners objecting to any evacu- 
ation of Jews from Hebron. Some of die dem- 
onstrators praised Barucbr Goldstein, the mili- 
tant settler who massacred 29 Muslim 
worshipers at the Tomb of the Patriarchs on 
Feb. 25 and was beaten to death by enraged 
survivors. 

The Hebron observer force will be drawn 
from and paid for by Norway, Denmaric and 
Italy. The observers, wearing distinctive uni- 
forms, will cany sidearms for self-defense but 
have no military or police powers, according to 
the agreement. The purpose is to “promote 
stability” and “to monitor the efforts to restore 
the safety of Palestinians” and “the return to 
normal life in the city of Hebron,” the agree- 
ment said. . 

The agreement, signed in Cairo by Nabfl 


Shaath, the chief PLO negotiator, and General 
Amnon Lipkm-Shahak, the Israeli deputy chief 
of staff, calls for a three-month deployment of 
observers, to be extended if both sides agree. 

The agreement marks the first tone since 
Israel seized the West Bank and Gaza Strip in 
the 1967 war that it has permitted such interna- 
tional observers, although in practice a number 
of organizations, including the United Nations, 
have run informal human rights monitoring 
programs. 

The observers were envisioned in the UN 
Security Council resolution approved in the 
wake of the massacre. In recent days, Hebron 
and other West Bank towns have been the scene 
of fierce confrontations between Palestinian 
youths and Israeli soldiers. 

In the Cairo talks, the Palestinians aban- 
doned their earlier demands that Israel disman- 
tle Jewish settlements in the heart of Hebron. 
The Palestinians also dropped their demands 
for a force of Palestinian police in Hebron, 
apparently because Israel would not grant die 
police independent authority. 

The Israeli foreign minister, Shimon Peres, 
said the international observers “will ease ten- 
sions and will help do whatever they can to 
return live to a more normal, more acceptable 
situation." 

Mr. 'Peres added, “They will not b e deal ing 
with any aspect of security. The collective re- 
sponsibility wtQ remain always in the bauds of 
the legal government, and we are the legal 
government" 

Binyamin Netanyahu, leader of the opposi- 
tion Likud party, said the government had 
made a “seminal mistake.’* 

He added, “Since 1967, the PLO and the 
Arab world are trying, so far unsuccessfully, to 
introduce such an international force, and 

See HEBRON, Page 5 




U.S. Trade-B 
Puts Japan a 

Compiled by Our Staff Front Dispatches 

WASHINGTON —The United States made 
public Thursday its annual report on global 
trade barriers and singled out Japan for searing 
criticism. . 

The trade office was quick to point out that 
the annual report had taken on “added signifi- 
cance” this year since President Bill Clinton 
had revived a dormant sanctions tod with To- 
kyo in mind. , „ . , _ , 

The report, known as the National Trade 
Estimate, used 44 pages to document tire ad- 
fministration’s well-known list of complaints 
about what it called Japan’s “highly protected 

home market” . . . . , . 

The European Union also was enpozed for 
cultural protectionism over its audiovisual mar- 
ket France and Italy led EU opposmon to 
including the audiovisual sector for the climma- 
tion of tariff barriers in the Uruguay Round of 
world trade talk* that ended in December. 

Japan’s large trade surpluses and boners to 
imports, the report said, had created enor- 
mous strains onJapan’s trade relations with the 
US. and other countries." . . 

The study will be used by the ad minis tration 
as it pursues a reopening of 
with Japan in the coming months. At the end of 
r, if the talks are not successful, the 


United States could identify Japan as a “priori- 
ty country” under the so-called Super 301 trade 
law. 

Following the revival on March 3 of Super 
301, any of the litany of accusations leveled 
against japan in the new repon could now be 
the basis for punitive tariffs. 

If that happens, the Super 301 process i would 
give the administration the flexibility to impose 

J im Stive tariffs, quotas or other measures if 
span's trade bamers arc not removed. But the 
government has up to 18 months to take such 
action, so it could still be months after the 
September deadline before any such tariffs are 
imposed. 

“The longest section of the report relates to 
Japan,” the trade office said. “The section con- 
tains examples of progress, but also documents 
the fact that the barriers in Japan to imports of 
manufactured goods and services far exceed the 

barriers of other G-7 nations and place an 
unacceptable burden on the global trading sys- 
tem.” ft was referring to the Group of Seven 
major industrialized countries. 

The section on Japan — up from 27 pages 
last year — noted that the U.S. deficit with 

See BARRIERS, Page 5 



Yon Sok Hnog/R«am 

a routine equipment check near Seoul 


Another Korean War? A Risk, U.S. Says 


By R. Jeffrey Smith 

Washington Past Service 

WASHINGTON — Secretary of Defense 
W illiam J. Perry has issued a blunt wanting that 
the United States intends to stop North Korea 
from developing a substantial arsenal of mide- 
ar weapons even at the potential cost of another 
war on the Korean Peninsula. 

Although cautioning that he did not believe 
war was imminen t and saying he was reluctant 
to sound “an alarmist note,” Mr. Parry said he 

had ordered a series of military preparations for 

possible conflict and would be “doing what I 
can over the course of the next few months” to 
focus more attention on the risks of war. 

[“We are pursuing firm but patient diplomat- 


ic steps with North Korea on their nudear 
program,” Mr. Perry told the US. Navy League 
m a speech Thursday, Reuter s reported. “But at 

Hie United States may accept a toned-down 
UN response to die Korean impasse. Page 3. 

the same time we are prudently increasing the 
defensive capability oi our forces there in the 
event our diplomacy there is not successful.” 

[Vice President A1 Gore said that the United 
States was pursuing an approach “that gradual- 
ly increases the pressure so that the world 
community has tire best chance of getting tire 
response” that it wants from North Korea.] 
Mr. Perry said the United States bad no 


intention of taking preemptive mflitary action 
against North Korea, but said he feared North 
Korea might react to any UN sanctions in ways 
that would require sending additional U.S. 
troops to South Korea. 

“We have to be prepared far whatever reac- 
tion we get on their part,” he said. 

Mr. Perry’s remarks underscored the risks of 
military conflict in Korea and the dilemma 
facing the Clinton a dm inis tra tion in a way that 
other UJ3. officials have been reluctant to state 
publicly. 

Since Mr. Perry became defense secretary 
two months ago, he has been arguing within tire 

See PERRY, Page 5 


De Klerk Puts 
Zulu Region 
Under State 
Of Emergency 

Mandela Is in Accord, 
Buthelezi Denounces 
Decree as an t InvasUm > 


By Paul Taylor 

Washington Post Service 

PRETORIA — President Frederik W. de 
Klerk declared a state of emergency Thursday 
in the blade homeland of KwaZulu and its 
surrounding province of Natal in the hope of 
assuring a free and fair election there next 
month. 

It was first time in more than three years that 
the white-minority government bad resorted to 
a step associated with the repression of apart- 
heid, but tire decree had broad support from 
black leaders, including the president of the 
African National Congress, Nelson Mandela. 

The announcement was immediately de- 
nounced by Chief Mangosuthn Buthelezi, the 
head of the Zulu-based Inkatha Freedom Party. 
He said the plan to send army and police forces 
with extraordinary search, seizure and deten- 
tion powers into Ms homeland would be would 
be viewed “as an invasion.” 

Chief Buthelezi's party is boycotting the 
April 26-28 election, and increasing violence in 
KwaZulu and Natal between his followers and 
supporters of the ANC has led to more than 270 
political kftfings in that region alone during 
March. 

Mr. de Klerk said he had concluded it would 
take a “substantial” deployment of additional 
army and police troops in Natal to prevent a 
“further deterioration” of election-related vio- 
lence. He declined to give a figure, but it is 
expected to be in the thousands. 

The province, situated along the country’s 
east coast, is home to just over one fifth of 
South Africa's population, and most of its 8 
million Zulus. 

Chief Buthelezi said he “can't see how elec- 
tions can be free and fair under a state of 
emergency ” but Mr. de Klerk made the reverse 
argument. 

He noted that political rallies bad been dis- 
rupted and voter education programs had been 
thwarted by the escalating violence. 

The declaration, he said, would force politi- 
cal parties to notify security officials about 
when end where they planned to hold major 
campaign events, so that troops could be de- 
ployed. 

The forces would also protect the rights of 
Chief Buthelezi’s supporters not to take part in 
the election, the president said, and he stressed 
that the move was not intended to usurp the 
chief’s position in the homeland. 

That will disappear in a mon th anyway, as all 
10 of South Africa’s black homelands, includ- 
ing KwaZulu, will go out of existence once the 
country holds its first multiracial election. 

[The United States on Thursday expressed 
support for tire imposition of a state of emer- 
gency, Renters reported from Washington. 
"The escalating violence in KwaZulu Natal in 
recent weeks poses a serious threat to tire con- 
duct of free and fair elections,” said tire State 
Department spokesman. Mike McCurry.] 

Mr. Mandela said one effect of the state of 
emergency would be to remove Chief Buthelezi 
from his role as head of the KwaZulu police, a 
4,000-member force that has been implicated in 
hit-squad activities against the ANC by a com- 
mission of inquiry. 

Mr. Mandela said the homeland police 
would be confined to their barracks and acti- 
vated only on orders from the army. 

Mr. de Klerk and Mr. Mandela said they 
hoped the declaration would not destroy plans 
for a summit meeting next week of themselves, 
Chief Buthelezi and tire king of tire Zulus, 
Goodwill Zwehtirirri, who has also called for an 
election boycott. The king contends that the 
new South Africa will not recognize the sover- 
eignty of the Zulu nation. 

The tough measure is seen as a having more 
of a psychological effect than a military one. 

The fighting in the region has been going on for 
a decade, and most analysts doubt that a few 
thousand additional troops win be able to stop 
it — especially with passions running high over 
the election. 

“The South African Defense Forces cannot 
pacify Natal,” said Jakkie CQliers, head of an 
independent military watchdog group. 

“1 think the real meaning of today is that De 
Klerk is sending a political message that he is 
prepared to be very tough with anyone who 
tries to obstruct the election.” 

Mr. GQiers said the deployment of the addi- 
tional troops to Natal might leave the country’s 
security apparatus stretched thin. 

“I think Buthelezi will now pull out all tire 
stops to destabilize the Johannesburg area," 
Mr. CQliers said. 




High -Tech Watchdog Dies With Cold War 


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By Peter Behr 
and Thomas W. lippman 

Washington Pad Serrice 

SSKj^wss 


^awcsiand Prices^ 


Andorra ..—9.00 FF 

Antilles U.20FF 2£5^.X00 Rials 

Cameroon J .400 CFA .20 FF 

Egypt E.P. SOM cgudi Arabia 

fSEL 9-00 FF g^JJjOCFA 

Gabon. — 960 CFA Spain 
Greece—.—- 300 Dr. Tunisia .-.l-OW Dg 

*«yw.i.*w modiE 

utmu^r.1 S1.T0J 


administration lifted export restrictions on tire 
sale of most oommercul computer and tele- 
communications equipment to Russia, Eastern 
Europe and China. The move was expected to 
give U.S. manufacturers access to a market 
worth billions of dollars a year. 

Although the member countries of COCOM, 
meeting in The Hague, have wound down the 
organization after 45 years, they agreed to con- 
sult each another and restrict technology ex- 
ports to areas of potential conflict. Urey also 
will continue to central exports to all nations of 
tire most threatening technologies, those deal- 
ing with nuclear and chemical weapons, as wdl 
as missiles. 

Officials of the International Trade and In- 
dustry Ministry in Tokyo said it would be 
necessary to retain some curbs on technology 
transfer to countries likely to be involved in 
aortal conflicts. 


toparts in The 


anese and Australian coun- 
wot unable to agree 


immediately cm controls of weapons-related 
exports to “countries of concern," such as 
North Korea, Libya, Iran and Iraq. 

Officials from tire 17 COCOM nations said 
they would work toward setting up a more 
broadly based successor to the organization 
later mis year. The Paris-based Coordinating 
Committee on Multilateral Sport Contras 
in chided all member countries of the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization, with tire excep- 
tion. of Iceland, phis Japan and Australia. 

Tie successor body is expected to include 
Austria, Finland, Ireland, New Zealand and 
Switzerland as well as a number of countries 
once on COCOM’s list of the banned. 

A Dutch nfflwiii who attended the secret 
Hague meeting said the successor organization 
may open its doors to Russia and later to 
C hina, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland 
and Slo vakia. At tire same time, a presidential 
spokesman in Moscow, Vyacheslav Kostikov, 

See COCOM, Page 5 


Kiosk 


Blast at Nuclear Site 
Kills French Worker 

MARSEILLE (AFP) — An explosion 
in a decommissioned nuclear reactor that 
was being dismantled kilkd a worker and 
injured tour others, officials said. They 
said no radiation bad been released at tire 
Cadarache center in southeastern France. 


Found After 3 Million Years: 
Early Human Ancestor’s Skull 


Book Review 


Page 7. 



AETWit TW. 84P.M. __ 

previous don 

DM 

1.674 

1.6751 

Pound 

1.4835 

1.479S 

Yen 

102.70 

102.84 

FF 

5.72 

5,7237 


By John Noble Wilford 

Nee York Times Service 

NEW YORK — The first reasonably com- 
plete skull of the earliest recognized hitman 
ancestors afro- tire split-off from tire great 
apes has been found near the bank of a dry 
riverbed in Ethiopia's arid badlands. 

The skull, with its apelike heavy brow, 
juttingjaw and small brain case, is apparently 
that of a large male who lived 3 million years 
ago. 

The find, which fills a serious gaj> in undOT- 
standmg early human evolution, gives a face 
to the species first identified and made fam- 
ous by the discovery in 1974 of the headless 
“Lucy” skeleton. 

Without a skull, scientists had not been 

sure what these creatures looked like or exact- 


ly what Lucy’s position was in tire human 
lineage. 

The discovery could settle some of the 
hotly debated issues over whether the varied 
fossils from this time, between 3.9 million 
and 3 million years ago, actually belonged to 
a single species, known as Australopithecus 
afarenas and considered the common root of 
the human family tree, or represented two or 
more species of different sizes and behavior. 

In a report published Thursday in thejour- 
nal Nature, the discoverers said tire skull 
confirmed the “taxonomic unity of A. af arm- 
sis,” that is, their original hypothesis that 
these creatures belonged to one species and 
not two, as other paleontologists had con- 

See SKULL) Page 5 


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Page 2 



A Whitewater of His Own Threatens Hosokawa 


By David E. Sanger 

New York Times Service 

TOKYO — With his coalition govern- 
ment already polling apart at the seams, 
Prime Minister M onhim Hosokawa now 
faces a new and increasingly serious threat 
to his shaky bold os power: a Whitewater 
scandal of his own. 

For days now, Mr. Hosokawa, who was 
elected last year because of bis image as a 
squeaky -dean outsider who vowed to 
change the corrupt world of Tokyo poli- 
tics, has been fumbling for answers about 
two questionable financial transactions 
while he served as governor of one of 
Japan's southern prefectures. 

There are widespread suspicious, which 
Mr. Hosokawa denies, that he used the 
profits as a secret political fund. Making 
things worse, one of the transactions in- 
volves a 51 millio n loan from the company 
at the carter of the scandal that pulled 
down the Liberal Democrats, who were 
voted out last summer for the first time in 
38 years. 

Seeing a chance to taint Mr. Hosokawa 
with the same brush, the Liberal Demo- 
crats have stopped ail legislative action for 


nearly four weeks and have turned parlia- 
mentary sessions into an inquisition. As a 
result, the government is entering the new 
fiscal year, which begins Friday, without a 
budget. 

Mr. Hosokawa spent Thursday under 
harsh questioning and sidestepped repeat- 
ed demands that he resign. 

like Whitewater, dements of the scan- 
dal have been bubbling along in the press 
for months, with tales of mysterious Joans 
and big gains that may have benefited Mr. 
Hosokawa and his family. And like the 
Clinton administration, Mr. Hosokawa 
has responded by offering a few, very 
vague answers, only to suffer considerable 
embarrassment when the story changed or 
new details dribbled out. 

Hie 51 million loan was made in 1982, 
just as Mr. Hosokawa became governor of 
Kumamoto. Mr. Hosokawa said he bor- 
rowed it from the transportation compa- 
ny, which at the time was beginning to 
pump cash to key politicians as it sought 
regulatory clearance to expand its routes 
in Japan, because the terms be was offered 
by commercial banks were unsatisfactory. 
He maintains that he used the money to 
buy a small apartment in a posh Tokyo 


neighborhood and to repair his house in 
Kumamoto. 

For collateral, be put up a piece of land 
and, of all oddities, an ancient tsuba, or 
sword guard. The guerd i« elaborately 
carved disk that that separates the handle 
of old samurai swords from the blade. Mr. 
Hosokawa’s family, one of the oldest and 
most notable families of feudal lords, 
owns a large collection of such treasures. 

Mr. Hosokawa has insisted that he paid 
the "loan" back. But the evidence is 
scarce, and suspicions persist that it was 
actually a gift. Mr. Hosokawa's only evi- 
dence to bade up his claim that the money 
was repaid is a receipt for the last instal- 
ment be paid. But the receipt did not bear 
the name of the lender or a seal or stamp, 
all of which would have been a pan of any 
normal transaction. 

Mr. Hosokawa has said be is unable to 
find other receipts, and he has twice 
changed the story of how be paid the 
money back. 

Equally mysterious is the question of 
how Mr. Hosokawa's family obtained 300 
shares of Nippon Telegraph, and Tele- 
phone stock when the enormously sought- 
after and expensive shares of the national- 


ly controlled telecommunications firm 
were first sold to the public in 1986. 

It was a virtually sure bet that the shares 

would soar in value, so the stock offering 
was oversubscribed. Most investors were 
able to buy only a fraction of the stock 
they sought. But the Hosakawas got lucky; 
They managed to obtain all 300 shares 
they asked for, allegedly paying around $4 
million for the privilege- After the stock 
rose in value, rwo- thirds of the shares were 
sold to pay off the loan that financed their 
purchase, leaving a profit of roughly 
5500.000. 

Mr. Hosokawa has angrily insisted that 
the transaction was in the name of his 
wife's father, who died last year, and that 
he was not involved. But a financial advis- 
er surfaced Wednesday who said he ar- 
ranged the loan to finance the purchase 
with one of Mr. Hososkawa’s political 
aides. 

Mir. Hososkawa said that be has never 
met the consultant, Shuzo Fujilri. But 
Thursday, obviously exasperated, he 
raised his voice at politicians questioning 
him about the transaction, saying “Sup- 
posing it was my deal, what’s wrong with 
that?" 


Russians 
May Delay 
Partnership 
With NATO 


By Fred Hiatt 

Wash i ngton Paa Service 

MOSCOW — Russia may delay 
its entry into NATO's Partnership 
for Peace program because of do- 
mestic opposition, a spokesman for 
President Boris N. Yeltsin said 
Thursday. 

The spokesman, Vyacheslav 
Kostikov, said that Russia's De- 
fense and Foreign mini stries and 
ice service ,_J * v " 


WORLD BRIEFS 


Chernobyl Unit’s Concrete Cover 
Weakening, Atomic Experts Warn 

VIENNA (A?) — A new safety review has found many flaws at the 
Chernobyl nuclear plant, including deterioration of the shea sealing u* 
imir that caused the world's worst nuclear accident eight years ago, 
regulators said Thursday. . 

The International Atomic Energy Agency said its director ^geneai, 
Hans Blix, had told the Ukrainian authorities that the pant was not 
meeting international safety st and a r d s . , ■ a 

An explosion in Unit 4 of the four-reactor power plant, 130 kflometoF 
(80 miles) north of Kiev, released a huge doud of radioactive material bn 
April 26, 1986. The official death tofl was 32, but saomsts say thousands 
may have died from related illnesses. The accident also caased fee 
evacuation of 180,000 people from surrounding temtory. 

Unit 4 was sealed in a concrete-an d-sted sarcophagus. The agency 
report said the safety team had confirmed “accelerated deterioration’* of 
the didl, “which, if it collapses, would have serious consequences.” 



I Jr f 


intelligen 

idea of Russia joining the program. 
But the spokesman said that Mr. 
Yeltsin believed the idea should 
undergo serious analysis “in order 
to receive wide political consen- 


U.S. Nears a Deal 
On UN Balkan Role 


Reuters 

UNITED NATIONS, New 
York — The United States agreed 
informally Thursday on a compro- 
mise resolution that would autho- 
rize 3,500 instead of 8,500 United 
Nations troops for Bosnia and re- 
new for six months the mandate for 
the LIN operation in the Balkans, 
U.S. envoys said. 

The UN Security Council must 
take some kind of action before the 
mandate expires Friday for the UN 
Protection Force in the former Yu- 
goslavia. 

France was expected to make an- 
other attempt to get the entire com- 
plement of 8,500 troops approved. 

In a last-minute change of mind, 
Washington late Wednesday said it 
needed more time before it could 
authorize the 8,500 troops UN 
commanders wanted to enforce 
cease-fires in Bosnia. 

Clinton ad minis tration officials 
apparently were unsure of financial 
support from Congress for the ex- 
tra troops. The United States, 
which must pay about 30 percent of 
all peacekeeping costs, already 
owes more than 580 million for the 
Yugoslav operation, estimated at 
over 51 billion annually. 

The draft resolution also extends 
North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion air protection to UN troops in 
Croatia as well as Bosnia. 

In Bosnia, Bosnian Serbian guns 
killed five people and wounded 
nearly 100 in a tnree-day bombard- 
ment of the UN “safe haven" of 
Gorazde, a UN official said Thurs- 
day in Sarajevo. 

At the same time, efforts by the 
United States to draw the Bosnian 
Serbs into the latest peace effort 
appeared to make little concrete 
progress. 

A spokesman for the UN High 
Commissioner for Refugees, Peter 
Kessler, said fighting erupted Tues- 
day around Gorazde, a Muslim en- 
clave of 60,000 in eastern Bosnia. 

A UN spokesman said Serbian 
forces had also stepped up shelling 
of government positions in central 
and northeast Bosnia on Wednes- 
day, including Kladanj, Srebrenica, 
Olovo and Gradacac. 

The UN refugee office said aid 


until the fighting stopped. The last 
one reached the town on March 22. 

As the fighting continued, the 
U.S. special envoy, Charles E. Red- 
man, met the Bosnian Serbian lead- 
er, Radovan Karadzic, at his head- 
quarters near Sarajevo in an 
attempt to persuade him to join a 
Muslim-Croatian peace pact 

Mr. Redman said he saw all sides 
in the war in Bosnia moving toward 
peace, but he reported no substan- 
tial progress after his talks with Mr. 
Karadzic. 

“I do believe that there is a 
shared view that there is some mo- 
mentum," Mr. Redman said. 

Following an agreement between 
Bosnia’s M uslims and Croats to 
form a federation with eventual 
links to Croatia, the Bosnian Serbs, 
as the third party in the war, are 
under increasing pressure to join 
the peace process. 

On Wednesday, the United 
Stales warned the Bosnian Serbs 
that they would not gain from con- 
tinued ethnic war and isolation and 
urged them to join Muslims and 
Croats in a lasting peace. 


More U.S. Troops 
For Macedonia 

Reuters 

SKOPJE, Macedonia — The 
United States plans to send up to 
250 more troops to Macedonia to 
help prevent the fighting in Bosnia 
from spreading across its border. 

General John Shalikashvili, 
chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs 
of Staff, said at a news conference 
in Skopje on Thursday that Presi- 
dent Bui Clinton had indicated that 
Washington was willing to provide 
a further 200 to 250 troops. 

“The exact number still has to be 
discussed but it is going to be 
around this number and the new 
contingent should be expected in 
the next few weeks," he said. They 
will join 322 UJS. troops who were 

lie last July to monitof^nm^OT 
border. 



sns. 

Mr. Kostikov’s comments to re- 
porters Thursday contradicted a 
statement by Defense Minister Pa- 
vel S. Grachev, who said after 
meeting with the U.S. defense sec- 
retary. Wiffiam J. Peny, in early 
March that Russia would sign up 
by the end of that month. 

' Manfred Warner, secretary-gen- 
eral of the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization, had said that the 
Russian foreign minister, Andrei 
V. Kozyrev, was likely to go to 
Brussels in late April to ago the 
agreement. 

But Mr. Kostikov, whose state- 
ments do not always coincide with 
Mr. Yeltsin's views, despite his post 
as chief spokesman, said the review 
of the program could cause a delay 
of six or seven months. 

The Partnership for Peace pro- 
gram was proposed by Washington 


supported the Sihanouk Recovering From Cancer 

erne program. BEUING (Reutere) — King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia, left 
bald by chemotherapy, appeared in public an Thursday for the first time 
since starting cancer treatments in Beijing nearly seven months ago. 

Appearing healthy and in good spirits, King Sihanouk was shown on 
Chinese television thanking a Chinese official for his treatment Hfe 
reappearance confirmed aides' reports that the king, 71, had recovered his 
mobility but lost his hair during seven months of chemotherapy for 
prostate and other cancers. 

Surgeons who removed a malignant tumor said the ca n cer sp read to 
other parts of his body, necessitating the months of chemotherapy. 
Doctors said the treatment was successful and that subsequent care 
would involve only regular checkups. 

French Student March Tarns Violent 




PARIS (AFP) — A mardi by thousands <rf students cddiratmgvictxxy 
over Prime Minister Edouard Balladur ended in violence here on Thurs- 
day when youths battled policemen and vandals smashed shop windows 
and burned cars. 

Riot 
attack 
and 

burned as youths fled into nearby streets and began to break shop 
windows one by raw. 

Similar rallies staged in major French cities wav peaceful. The rallies 
were called to celebrate a retreat by Mr. Balladur over a plan to reduoe 
entry-Ievd wages for young people. The police estimated the number off 
Paris marchers at 26,000. 

and its NATO affies'as a compro- ___ _ _ T « - c\. i 

mise between Eastern European EU Ratifies NeW Hall fop jtrasbOOTg 

eromtri«* which aw» m inin D 

BRUSSELS (AP) — The European Parliame nt decided on Thursday to 
sign a 20-year lease on a new building in Strasbourg, France, effectively 
giving the European Union’s assembly two homes. 

The move wifi allow the Parliament to take in new monbers from the 
former East Germany after ejections in June. France had threatened to 
block an increase in the number of deputies unless a new assembly hall 
was built in Strasbourg. The present hall there would be too small for an 
expanded Parliament after new members join the Union. 

“We have resolved the question," said Nicole Fontaine, a French 
conservative member of the Par liam ent in Brussels, where a new, S12 
billion assembly hall was inaugurated six months ago. A British member, 
J ohn Tomlinson, said, “We have capitulated to blackmail." 


-s; 

i v 


countries, which are eager to join 
the militar y alliance immediately, 
and Russia, which favors an entire- 
ly new security structure now that 
the Cold War had ended. 

The program would allow fra- 
mer Soviet-bloc countries to take 
part in joint training and militar y 
exercises without becoming formal 
members of NATO. Each country 
would join on its own terms, work- 
ing out separately how mucb coop- 
eration it sought. 

So far, 13 former Soviet alfas or 
republics have signed up fra the 
program. Many of them have said 
they view the program as a precur- 
sor to full membership. 

Partly fra that reason, many 
Russian politicians have expressed 
suspicions about the program, 
viewing it as a way for the United 
States and its allies to extend their 
reach into areas that traditionally 
have fallen under Russian influ- 
ence. Others have expressed the 
fear that theprogram would harm 
Russia's ability to sell arms if its 

traditional customers began using — — . ^ 

NATO-standardized weapons. n . . TT , _ _ 0 1 T , 

Mr. Kostikov said Thursday that 3 Accidents Hit Moscow Subway Line 

Mr. Yeltsin, who had previously , JOCW , n , ~ , ... . J , , 

expressed dear support for Re/ MOSCOWjRemns)- Urn aoadems go He same taiedlhe 

— .v :„». Moscow subway system in less than 15 hours injured 13 people, officials 

said Thursday. 


r. 


Uganda Vote Upholds the Status Quo 

KAMPALA, Uganda (Reuters) — Candidates backing President 
Yoweri Museveni's nonpartisan system won two-thirds of seats in a new 
constituent assembly, Uganda’s election c ommis sion reported Thursday. 

Political analysts said the results of the elections held Monday meant 
that Mr. Museveni could easily win a five-year extension of the suspen- 
sion of political party activities imposed after he lode power in 1986. 

Supporters of the nonpartisan system won 145 of 214 seats at stake, 
official results showed. 


TRAVEL UPDATE 


I : 


A Bosnian Serbian soldier taking time out to pray in a field near CHovo, a site of renewed fighting. 


da’s joining the prog ram, is weigh- 
ing several arguments that have 
been raised against iL 

“One of these arguments is that 
it does not entirely recognize the 
scale of Russia’s political role and 
of the militaiy might of Russia,” he 
said. 

A NATO spokesman said Thurs- 
day that there appeared to be “a 
considerably amount of misunder- 
standing" of the program, Reuters 
reported from Brussels. The 
spokesman offered further talks 
with Moscow. 


Italy’s Far-Right Party: Is It Fascism With a Human Face? 


By Alan Cowell 

New York Tima Service 

ROME — A half-century after 
the Fascists’ defeat in World War 
11, the political descendants of Be- 
nito Mussolini are set to govern 
again as part of the rightist alliance 
that sprinted to victory this week in 
Italy’s national elections. 

The challenge that faces them 
now is to convince skeptical Ital- 
ians and other Europeans that they 
have shed the anti-Semitism, xeno- 
phobia and extr emism of their fore- 
bears, allied during the war with 
Germany’s Nazis, to become what 
they insist is a modem party of the 
European right. 

To hear their spokesmen tefl it. 


“the ortgumI~ 

Just tell the taxi driver, 
"Sank roo doc noo 
5, rue Daunou Paris (Op&a) 
TcL (1)42*1.71.14 


the transformation is more than 
complete. 

“We have said time and again 
that fascism was a part Of history 
that finished 50 yearn ago,” said 
Nicola Accame, an official of the 
National Alliance, at the neofascist 
party’s headquarters in Rome. 
“This is not the moment to talk 
about history, but to look to the 
future." 

Yet, many who recall the darkest 
days of the deportation of Jews 
from Italy and their persecution 
under Mussolini's race laws are far 
from convinced. Thar apprehen- 
sion rally deepened Monday night, 
when several hundred young skin- 
heads gave straight-arm neofascist 
salutes while mingling with a crowd 
of National Alliance supporters at 

a victory rally. 

“It is a big shock that the govern- 
ment of a signatory of the Treaty of 
Rome for the first time includes a 
party that never denied its Fascist 
roots," said Tnllia Zevi, a promi- 
nent leader of Italy’s 40,000 Jews. 
The postwar treaty was the found- 
ing document of the European 
Union. 


In the voting Sunday and Mon- 
day, the National Alliance, led by 
Gianfranco Fini, won 12 percent of 
the ballot and 17 percent of the 
seats in the lawmaking lower house 
of Parliament, three times the num- 
ber they held in the house elected 
two years ago. 

One of those seats, in Naples, 
was won by Aiessandra Mussolini, 
the dictator’s granddaughter, who 
said in a published interview before 
the election that fascism “was a 
very important part of history that 
can no longer be demonized or can- 
celed out" 

“But it’s history," she added, 
“and no one is thinking of intro- 
ducing it into Italy today." 

The neofascists campaigned in 
alliance with the victorious Fotza 
Italia party of the media magnate 
Silvio Berlusconi, and the separat- 
ist Northern League. Together, 
won an absolute majority of 
seats in the lower house of 
Parliament, effectively replacing 
the centrist Christian Democrats 
and their allies, discredited in Ita- 
ly’s huge corruption scandals. 

Fra the National Alliance, the 


results meant that the ncofascist spectable, double-breasted 
party had entered the political pie,” said a sociologist, FrancoEer- 
mainsiream after years on the mar - rarottL Mrs. Zevi acknowledged 
gins as a strident critic of both the that the neofascist party leader was 
centrist government and Cbmmn- s “vary capable politician” who 
nist opposition. had “succeeded in keeping the ex- 

“The astuteness of Fini has been tremisls on the leash." 
to present the party as highly re- Fascism is illegal in Italy, and the 


National Alliance party does not 
use the term “fascist” to describe 
itself. Fra many, the word evokes 
an era they would rather forget, 
although neither Mussolini's mem- 
ory nor fascism evoke hatred with 
the same intensity that Hitler and 
Nazism does in Germany. 


Four people were hurt Thursday when a speeding train derailed during 
in the mooring rush hour at the north end of the underground railroad’s 
Sapukbovskyline,a GyA Defense Ministry spokesman said. Earlier, just 
after metro cars started running at 5 AJM, two trains bumped together at 
a station in the southern end of the same line. No one was hurt. 

On Wednesday night, nine people were treated fra injuries suffered 
when carriages (hat had come uncoupled smacked together on another 
station of the line's southern spoke. 

Catering wwfcera across Italy said Tlmdqy they would go ahead with a 
series of tight-hour strikes starting Friday in a contract dispute with 
employers. The stoppages are to begin at expressway restaurants at 
service stations. Workers in restaurants, hotels and fast food outlets wiD 
go on strike in Florence on Saturday and Sunday. (Reuters) 

The United Arab Emirates opened Us sixth airport on Thursday in an 
effort to bolster tourism in the face of growing air traffic in the region 
The facility, in the city of A1 Ain. 160 kilometers (100 miles) east of Abu 
Dhabi, can initially handle five Boeing 747s on the farmer and two large 
aircraft at the cargo facility, officials said. (AFP) 

The UJS. State Department warned Americans against traveling to 
Guatemala, where U.S. citizens have beat attacked in recent days by 
mobs angry over rumors of foreigners’ stealing children fra organ 
transplants. The department urged U.S. citizens in Guatemala to avoid 
crowds, avoid traveling alone and to exercise caution. (Reuters) 

Another room has been reopened hi Florence’s Uffha Gaiety, following 
restoration work after a car bomb damaged the building last May. 
Among the works in Room 34 are ofi paintings by Veronese and 
Tintoretto. (AP) 


i -■ 


i-Z. 




LEADER: Berlusconi Brings to Politics die Intuitive 9 Style That Built a Business Empire 


Qntinaed from Page 1 

dons at the villa that Mr. Berlus- 
coni in 1988 eventually decided to 
pay nearly £700 million, twice the 
market pnee, to acquire Standa, the 
big Italian retail chain. Much of his 
recent political strategy was also 
decided in meetings that included a 
circle of between 10 and 20 friends 
and business colleagues, who often 
sat up with Mr. Berlusconi until 
five o’clock in the morning. 

“Let me be dear," sots Franco 
Tato, the former Olivetti executive 
who was named last October as 
chief executive of FiniavesL “Ber- 
lusconi is not a manager. He 


couldn’t care less about the details 
of managing Nor is he especially 
interested in profits, in the bottom 
line. He is a visionary, a very cre- 
ative man who is governed by bis 
intuition." 

It is not that Mr. Berlusconi is 
sloppy in his badness dealings, 
contends newly elected Senator 
Roberto Lasagna, who worked 
closely developing television adver- 
tising for Finmvest channels when 
be was chairman of the Italian sub- 
sidiary of Sirnid" and Sa»«rfii ? and 
who left the advertising company 
in January to become Mr. Berius- 
coni’s campaign manager. 

“He is meticulous about return- 


ing telephone calls, about writing 
letters, about sending little presents 
to people," Mr. Lasagna said. 
“And he is fiercely loyal to col- 
leagues and employees.* 

Fodde Coafmomed, the man en- 
trusted to chair Mr. Berlusconi's 
business empire and an old friend 
from university days, this week de- 
scribed Mr. Berlusconi as “a great 
salesman" and noted; “The Ital- 
ians wanted a new party? He creat- 
ed one in just three men ths and he 
sold it to them.” 

Exactly right, says Carlo Fre- 
cero, a programming executive at 
the Paris-based France Television 
who helped run Mr. Berlusconi's 


private television empire until two 
years ago. Ml Frecero, who broke 
with Mr. Berlusconi over editorial 
differences, calls his former boss 
“the consumer king of Italy" and 
contends Ms political success is 
based entirety on marketing skills. 

Indro Montandli, the grand old 
man of Italian journalism who 
walked out on Mr. Berlusconi dur- 
ing the election campaign because 
of a dispute over the independence 
of a Milan newspaper owned by 
Mr. Berhisoani’s brother, calls him 
“a snake charmer.” Mr. Montanefli 
says be has had business fteatingc 
with Mr. Berlusconi for many 
years, and warns that “he gets 


4f ■' ' 

bored easily." He said, “I doo7- ; -- 
think he will govern well because be 
is a man of words and images and 
not much rise.” 

A more optimistic view of Ms. ju 
Berhisoonfs chances at translating . a ; 
his busmess skills into government j, 
comes from Teny Semd, the co ^ . 

c h ai rma n of Warner Brothers in . . . 
Hollywood. Mr. Semd, who has j"-* • 
done business with Mr. Berfusco® r 
for years, says he is “smart, sawj ■■■» : • 
and a risk-taker” who ha.< good ~ . ; 
instincts. Mr. Stand calls Mr. Btf- 
hwconi “a person with the manage? 
rial skills and ability to motivate . 
people that might be superb ingrc^ 
dieuts to bdp motivate a country. , 


o 

V 

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Clinton Aides Move to Divert Whitewater 


By Gwen Ifill 

.Vr* fani ZTmei Sfnvrr 

WASHINGTON — As President Bill Clin- 
ton vacations in California this week, the aides 
he left behind are taking advantage of the lull 
created by his absence and the congressional 
recess to try to rescue a domestic agenda 
knocked askew by Whitewater. 

The public relations assault, led by David 
Gergen, the counselor to the president, and 
Thomas F. (Mack) McLarty 3rd, the White 
House chief of stall, questions the relevance of 
the Clintons' real estate and commodities in- 
vestments in the 1970s. The assault also pro- 
motes the administration's legislative accom- 
plishments, which White House officials say 
have been obscured. 

As pan oT the same drive, the president and 
Hillary Rodham Clinton will soon leave on a 
tour of the West to promote their proposal for 
health care. 

"There's definitely a concerted effort to have 
a strategy and a game plan, both in the weeks 
preceding the Easter recess, and the weeks 
coining out of the Easter recess,” said Dee Dee 


Myers, the White House press secretary. “It's 
sort of a moment of opportunity.'* 

After Mr. Clinton went on a partisan attack 
over Whitewater last month during a fund- 
raising event in Boston. White House officials 
visited Capitol HiD in an effort to soothe Re- 
publican lawmakers. 

But now that lawmakers have left town for 
Easter, the spin-doctoring moved to a breakfast 
of Washington reporters who tend to be more 
genteel over eggs and cereal than they are in the 
White House press room. 

At the breakfast Wednesday, Mr. Gergen 
and Mr. McLarty brought along Pat Griffin, 

the White House congressional liaison, and 

suggested that he might like to talk about poli- 
cy. 

“There were so many questions at the press 
conference last week on Whitewater, and so few 
on polity, our hope was to say, 'Look, we're 
going to deal with Whitewater and be as re- 
sponsive, cooperative; as possible,’ " Mr. Ger- 
gen said. “But at the same time, it's important 
to get on with the rest of the agenda. That’s 
what the country wants.” 


The latest activity among senior While 


titration polls showing that many Americans 
are not aware of the special counsel's investiga- 
tion into Whitewater and believe that the Clin- 
tons have concealed essential facts. 

Both Mr. Gergen and Mr. McLarty said the 
Clin tans were honorable people who had en- 
gaged in “total and full disclosure." 

“A lot of the concern we now see in the 
country about Whitewater arises more over the 
question of whether it's gong to disrupt gov- 
ernment than what may have happened IS or 16 
years ago.” Mr. Gergen said. 

Mr. McLarty suggested that the “distin- 
guished national press corps" had blown the 
whole thing out of proportion. Whitewater, he 
said, is considered by many Americans to be no 
more than a complicated excuse for continued 
legislative gridlock, and the setting of impossi- 
bly high standards. 

“It’s quite difficult for any human being to 
consistently meet every perceived view or stan- 
dard set by various people,” Mr. McLarty said. 
“2 don't think BQ] Clinton has ever claimed to 
be able to do that. Nor has Hillary.” 




First Lady Cashed In 
I Just Before ’79 Drop 


HOUSE OF DEATH — Vice President A1 Gore, right, helping the Reverend KeJ fy Oem and her husband, the Reverei^Dak 
(Jeni, thro ugh m e rubble of the Goshen United Methodist Church in Piedmont, Alabama. Twenty people, winding rty > <vwp U’c d- 
y ear-old daughter, dred when a tornado struck during Sunday worship and the roof collapsed. Mrs. Gem is pastor of the church. 

Court Rejects A ppeal of Caning Sentence 


Hal! for > 


fluid- tile Matu.it 


By Michael Richardson 

International Herald Tribune 

• SINGAPORE — An American teenager, Mi- 
chael Peter Fay, is expected to seek clemency 
from Singapore's president after an appeals 
■court judgment on Thursday confirming his 
caning and jail sentence for vandalism. 

- Only the intervention of President Ong Teng 
Cheang can prevent the sentence from being 
carried out. A presidential amnesty, however, 
■has never been granted for vandals sentenced to 

' faming 

• In dismissing the appeal by Mr. Fay’s law- 
yers against the lower court sentence earlier this 
month of six lashes with a cane and four 
months imprisonment. Chief Justice Yong 
Pung How said the youth had engaged “relent- 
lessly and willfully in at least 16 acts erf van- 
dalism over a 10-day period in September. 

He said those acts amounted to “what I 
‘consider to be a calculated course of criminal 
‘conduct” 

President Bill Clinton had called for the 
-sentence against Mr. Fay, 18, to be reconsid- 


ered, saying that he believed, based on the facts 
and treatment erf simitar cases in Singapore, 
that “this punishment is extreme.” 

Mr. Fay showed no emotion as he heard the 
court’s ruling, but many of his classmates and 
relatives in the packed courtroom wept 
The youth, from St Louis, Missouri, has 
lived in Singapore with his mother and stepfa- 
ther since 1992 and was a student at the Singa- 
pore American school. 

Mr. Fay was first sentenced on March 3 after 
pleading guilty to two charges of vandalism, 
two of mischief and one of re taining stolen 


property. 

Tbevai 


ty-paini- 

ngedtoa 


mg private vehicles. One of them be 
High Court official. The stolen-^ 
involved Singapore Hags and road si g ns that 
were found in his possession. 

In addition to the caning and jail time, he was 
fined 3,300 Singapore dollars (S2J375). Twenty 
other charges, 16 for vandalism and four for 
mischief, were not prosecuted but were taken 
into consideration by the judge in Thursday’s 
ruling. 


Ralph Boyce, the acting American ambassa- 
dor to Singapore, said that the U.S. government 
regretted that the ruling “leaves in place the 
caning dement of Michael Fay's sentence.” 

Judicial caning in Singapore, normally ad- 
ministered for crimes of violence, is applied to 
the bare buttocks of a prisoner. It can have 
severe effects, including permanent scars. 

Mr. Boyce said that the U.S. government 
continued to believe that caning was “an exces- 
sive penalty for a youthful, nonviolent offender 
who pleaded guilty to reparable crimes against 
private property. 

He said ne understood that Mr. Fay’s lawyer 
would appeal for presidential clemency, and 
that the authorities would not carry out the 
caning while the plea was being considered. 

Many foreigners tiring inSngapore were 
alarmed at the sentence. The local American 
Chamber of C ommer ce said in a statement 
after the lower court judgment, “We simply do 
not understand how the government can con- 
done the permanent scarring of any 18-year-aJd 
boy — American or Singaporean — by caning 
for such an offense.” 


1. I PDATE 


V[ LRrady Gun Law Hits Targets 

Mo-n-v >ub*S'i Info First Month, 1,605 Are Barred From Purchases 




-j-.xr—- 



By Pierre Thomas 

Washington Past Service 

' WASHINGTON — In its first 
'month of operation, the Brady gun 
!law, a national five-day waiting pe- 
riod and background check, has 
prevented at least 1.605 people 
'from buying handguns, among 
them fugitives and felons convicted 
of armed robbery, murder and 
manslaughter, according to prdim- 
■inary statistics from 15 states and 
‘cities. 

A total at 44 fugitives or persons 
facing outst anding warrants were 
denied guns, including one South 
Carolina man wanted for sexual 
assa ult who was arrested in the gun 
store. Gun-control supporters 
'lauded the early statistics as a de- 
finitive, but conservative, indicator 
of die law's effectiveness. 

' Opponents, meanwhile, called it 
•a m eaningless infringement on the 
‘rights of law-abiding citizens. The 
National Rifle Association is sup- 
porting lawsuits in Texas,. Arizona, 
Montana and Mississippi that ar- 
-.gue that the Brady law is unconsti- 
tutionally vague and violates the 
1 0th amendmen t because it en- 
croaches on the authority of states. 
Gun-control proponents said the 
' evidence clearly showed that 
routinely walk into gun 


stores and try to buy guns over the 
counter. 

“Who says criminals ah 
their guns on the street?” said Jc 
W. Magaw, director of the Bureau 
of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. 
*T must tdl you the Brady law is 
breathing hope into this battle 
against crime involving firearms.” 

Mr. Magaw made his comments 
during a news conference Wednes- 
day cm the 13th anniversary of the 
assassination attempt on Ronald 
Reagan, which left the president’s 
press secretary, James S. Brady, 
near death from a gunshot to the 
head. The event helped spur a na- 
tional gun-control movement. 

Mr. Brady said of the law named 
for him: “Although today is an 
anniversary, on which I prefer not 
to dwell, I must say h is certainly 
satisfying that today — for the first 
time in 13 years — we don’t have to 
call for the most basic gun-control 
laws in the country. For the fust 
time on this day, I don't have to 
remind lawmakers that we need the 
Brady ML” 

Under the new law, federally li- 
censed am dealers are required to 
notify the chief law-enforcement 
officer in the potential buyer’s 
community. That law-enforcement 
official is to make a “reasonable 
effort” to determine if the buyer is 


a convicted Won, mentally unsta- 
ble, or otherwise prohibited from 
buying agon. The waiting period is 
to be dropped after five yeas, 
when a national computerized in- 
stant-check system is supposed to 
be opcrationaL 

Twenty states and territories had 
similar legislation in effect before 
the national Brady law was passed. 
Counting queries from these juris- 
dictions, 375,853 inquiries about 
gun purchasers have been made to 
the FBI’s computerized criminal 
information network. Of those, 
23,610 have been identified as pos- 
sible felons, officials of the Bureau 
of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms 
said. 

At least 60 people, primarily fu- 
gitives, are being prosecuted for 
Brady violations, Mr. Magaw said. 

“The Brady law saves fives,” said 
Representative Charles E. 
Schumer, Democrat of New York. 
“The results of Brady are outstand- 
ing but not surprising.” 

NRA officials had a different 
view. 

“The numbers are m is l eading,” 
said Rick Sellers, chairman of the 
the group’s Criminals Cause Crime 
Coalition. “The Brady law doesn’t 
focus on criminals. They are not 
going after criminals. They are 
bothering citizens.” 


2 Mm Arrested 
lnL.A. Killings 
Of Japanese 

The Associated Press 

LOS ANGELES —Two re- 
puted gang members have 
been arrested in the slayings of 
two students from Japan who 
were shot during a “carjack- 
ing” over the weekend. 

The two men arrested, Ray- 
mond Oscar Butler, 18, and 
Alberto Reygoza, 20. were 
booked for investigation of 
murder and jailed without 
bad. Police Chief Willie L 
Williams said. 

Mr. Williams declined to 
say what evidence had led to 
the arrests, but did say a video- 
tape from a cash machine 
nearby played no role because 
of the distance and the dark- 
ness. “We are considering en- 
hancing the tape," he s&kL 

In Japan, the slayings of Ta- 
kuma ilo and Go Matsuura, 
both freshmen at Marymount 
College in the Los Angeles 
suburb of Rancho Palos 
Verdes, reinforced the image 
of the United States as a land 
of gunslingers. 

Mr. Ito and Mr. Matsuura, 
both 19, were shot in the head 
in a supermarket parking lot 
last Fnday, and their new 
Honda was stolen. They died 
two days later. 


mc? 


Away 


From Politics 

• A VS. Navy panel recom- 
mended the exptdsfcMi of 29 
mwtehjpfnan involved in the 
largest cheating sc an d al in the 
ulyear histmy of the U.S. 
Naval Academy. The Honor 
Review Board said that 42 oth- 
er midshipmen should be dis- 
ciplined for honor code viola- 
tions. It cleared 35 
midshipmen of cheating on an 
electrical engmeering exami- 
nation in December 1992. 
#CNN faces trial on a con- 
tempt charge that it knowingly 
disobeyed a judge’s 1990 order 
not to broadcast tape record- 
ings of Manuel Antonio Nor- 
iega’s jailhouse telephone con- 
versations. The charge came 
more than three years aftw a 
district judge learned ibat 
CNN had obtained the tapes 
of the former Panamanian 
military leader, convicted oi 
drug and racketeering charges. 

• In a lamtaark class-action 

lawsuit filed in New Orleans,** 
team of lawyers began a bid 10 
hold tobacco companies ac- 
countable for the deaths^ 
suffering of millions of smok- 
ers, claiming that manufactur- 
ers intentionally increased nic- 
otine Ievds in cigarettes so 
that addicted smokers would 
continue to buy t heat 

AP. LAT. Reuters 


Helen Wolff, Publisher, Dies 


Compiled bf Oar Staff From Dispatches 

BOSTON — Helen Wolff, who 
published the works of such Euro- 
pean writers as Boris Pastorale, 
GOnter Grass, Umberto Eco and 
Amos Oz, died Monday at her 
home in Hanover, New Hi 
shire, apparently of a heart at 
her family said She was 88. 

Mrs. Wotff, a native of Macedo- 
nia, founded Pantheon Books with 
her husband, Kail, after they fled 
Nazi Germany in 1941. For years, 
they formed a team under the im- 
print "A Helen and Kurt Wolff 
Book” at Harcourt Brace Jovano- 
rich. They were acclaimed for pub- 
lishing translations of distin- 
guished European writera. 

Mrs. Wolff continued to work 
after her husband died in a traffic 
accident in West Germany in 1963. 
She was known for going beyond 
the demands of the marketplace. 

“The joy of publishing is to see 
good works become generally rec- 
ognized,” she once said. “Litera- 
tSecan do surprisingly wdL" 

Mrs. Wolff published Anne 


Morrow Lindbergh’s “Gift from 
the Sea” and Pasternak’s “Doctor 
Zhivago.” Among the other writes 
riie published were Max Frisch and 
Georges Shnenoa. 

The multilingual Mis. Wolff had 
an advantage over associates be- 
cause riie could read a manuscript 
in German, French or Italian and 
deride overnight whether to pub- 
lish it 

Bom Helen Mosel in Macedonia 
in 1906 to a German father and 
Himgflriap - ft nstrian mother, she 
andKurt Wolff married in London 
-in 193 3. They came to the United 
Stales in 1941 to escape the Nazis. 

In New York, tire Wolffs found- 
ed Pantheon Books in 1942 after 


Hew York Tima Service 
NEW YORK — Pope John Paul 
O will visit New York City in Octo- 
ber and will address the United 
Nations Genersii Assembly, the 
Vatican announced. 


investors. In 1944, they 
their first success with a new edi- 
tion of the Grimm faiiy tales. Their 
imprint at Harcourt was estab- 
lished in 1961. (AP, Reuters) 

MmiB Pndtt,76, a founder and 
former editor of TV Guide, died 
Monday in Philadelphia. Mr. Pan- 
itt and Walter Annenberg, former 
publisher of The Philadelphia In- 
quirer, came up with tire idea of a 
national weekly magazine devoted 
to television in 1953. Mr. Panin 
later became editor erf TV Guide 
and then editorial director of Mr. 
Annenberg’s Triangle Publica- 
tions, which included Seventeen 
magazine. 

Pfene Vczfinsky, 62, director- 


By Howard Schneider 
and Charles R. Babcock 

Washington Past Service 

WASHINGTON — Hillary 
Rodham Clinton stopped trading 
in high-risk cattle futures in 1979 
weeks before a precipitous crash 
that led 10 a raft of litigation 
against the broker who helped her 
parlay SI, 000 into nearly $100,000. 

Trading records made public by 
the White House showed that sire 
withdrew $60,000 from her trading 
account at Ray E. Friedman & Co., 
known as Refco, in late July 1979, 
essentially ending her activity with 
the Springdale, Arkansas, branch 
of the Chicago-based commodities 
brokerage. 

In October of that year, the bull 
market that had fueled Mrs. Clin- 
ton's spectacular profits crashed, 
resulting in hundreds of thousands 
of dollars in losses to Refco cus- 
tomers and allegations that the bro- 
kerage had gUBMpulaled tire cattle 
market to the detriment of some of 
its customers. 

A White House official said that 
Mrs. Clinton had “no forewarning” 
of the events that led to a market 
mm and a rash of lawsuits against 
Refco and her broker, Robert L 
j who worked in Ref co’s 
Springdale operation. 

Mrs. Qinton did open another 
commodities account with a differ- 
ent broker in October 1979, but she 
stayed out. of the highly volatile 
cattle market, the White House of- 
ficial said. She ceased trading in 
that account after becoming preg- 
nant with her daughter, Chelsea. 
The second account was closed in 
March 1980. 

For Mrs. Clinton, who 
playing the commodities 
while her husband served as Arkan- 
sas attorney general and was a fa- 
vored Democratic cand i da t e for 
governor, the commodities invest- 
ment represented a risky plunge for 
a couple with about $51, (XX) in sala- 
ries that year and few assets. At the 
time, the Clintons had just em- 
barked on their only other signifi- 
cant investment: part ownership of 
the Whitewater real estate venture 
in the Ozarks that had left them 


indebted for half of a $203,000 
mortgage. 

But operating with the advice of 
a family friend, James B. Blair, a 
lawyer for Tyson Foods Inc., Mrs. 
Clinton realized what commodities 
experts described this week as ex- 
traordinary profits for a first-tune 
commodities player. Records re- 
leased by the White House showed, 
few example, her initial $1,000 stake 
multiplied in one day to $6,300. 

Even an overnight profit is 
“mathematically possible” if the 
investor successfully takes advan- 
tage of price fluctuations during 
the course of a day. said Muraji 
Nakazawa. chief executive officer 
of Castle Commodities Corp. But 
to rack up a 500 percent return 
even over a few days is rare. 

Some Refco clients were less for- 
tunate than Mrs. Clinton, records 
show. In the early 1980s. Refco 
clients, some of its brokers and a 
group of cattlemen brought law- 
suits alleging a variety of impropri- 
eties against the brokerage, mefud- 
that Mr. Bone had 
!” losing investments to 
some cheats in order to benefit 
preferred customers. None of the 
allegations involved Mrs. Clinton. 

■ What die Expats Say 

Bamaby J. Feder of The New 
York Times reported from Chicago: 

Commodity traders and brokers, 
shown reports of Mrs. Clinton's 
trading profits from October 1978 
to the next July, said it might be 
impossible to determine whether 
they based were on lode or skill. 

To know for sure, they said, in- 
vestigators would have to see re- 
cords detailing when and how each 
order was received and executed. 
But the Commodity Futures Trad- 
ing Commission only requires that 
such records be maintained (or live 
and it is assumed that Refco 
long since disposed of them. 

For Mrs. Qinton or any other 
novice starting with a small ac- 
count , the key would have been to 
get good advice, experts said. 

“Even a crazy person wouldn’t 
trade the volumes she did without 
it,” said Richard Brock, head of the 
Milwaukee consulting and trading 
firm Brock & Associates. 


U.S. May Settle for Less 
In UN Action on Korea 


general of the Orchestra de Paris, 
died Monday. He won top prizes in 
the Paris National Conservatory’s 
piano and chamber music competi- 
tions in 1952, and gave several con- 
cert lours of Europe and Latin 
America between 1954 and 1966. 

Colonel General Stefan Guse, 54, 
a Romanian Army chief accused of 
being involved in attempts to crush 
the 1989 revolt against Nicolae 
Ceausescu, died Monday of cancer. 

Harold Stewart, 97, an American 
who served in the French Army in 
World War 1 and was decorated for 
rescuing French soldiers at the Sec- 
ond Battle of the Maine, died Sun- 
day in Latrobe, Pennsylvania. 

Tommy Benford, 88. who played 
the drums for such early jazz stars 
as Jelly Roll Morton, Wiffic (The 
Lion) Smith, Fats Waller and Sid- 
ney Bechet, died March 24 in 
Mount Vernon, New York. 

Margaret Millar, 79, a writer erf 
more than 25 novels of psychologi- 
cal intrigue, died Saturday of a 
heart attack in Santa Barbara, Cali- 
fornia. Miss Millar and her hus- 
band, Kenneth, who wrote under 
tile pen name Ross MacDonald, 
were considered America’s most 
productive husband and wife writ- 
ing team. 

Mkaefa Vffla, 83. a daughter of 
the Mexican revolutionary Pancbo 
VTTTa died Sunday in in Plainfield, 
New Jersey. 


Reuters 

WASHINGTON — The United 
States signaled Thursday that it 
might be willing to tone down ac- 
tion by the United Nations to con- 
front tiie threat posed by North 
Korea's nuclear weapons program. , 

The State Department spokes- 
man, Mike McCuny, suggested 
dial Washington might be wfifing 
to accept a statement by the presi- 
dent of the UN Security Council on 
the North Korean nuclear issue 
rather than a formal resolution. 

The aim woold be to gain Chi- 
na’s support, rather than its absten- 
tion, from any action taken at the 
UN. The Chinese have opposed 
any resolution and proposed a 
mildly worded council statement 
instead. 

Mr. McCurry indicated the 
United States might go along with 
that as long as the statement made 
it dear that h was a first step to 
mobilize the inte rnatio nal commu- 
nity to block North Korea’s nucle- 
ar program and bring it back under 
international control. 


China Tries to Dampen 
Talk of Nuclear Test 

Reuters 

BEIJING — China said Thurs- 
day that it would exercise restraint 
on nudear testing and keep work- 
ing for a test ban treaty, but it 
stopped short of denying it planned 
another underground test blast 
soon. 

Miguel Marin-Bosch, bead of 
UN-sponsored negotiations in Ge- 
neva for a comprehensive test ban 
treaty, said Wednesday there were 
signs China might soon cany out 
another test to follow the explosion 
it set off in October. 

“I haven’t heard of this," a Chi- 
nese Foreign Ministry spokeswom- 
an said. She added, however, The 
number of nudear tests conducted 
by China is the smallest among the 
five big nuclear powers." 


“It is important to us to calibrate 
exactly what kind of response we 
take,” he said. “It might be a mod- 
est first step in the eyes of some 
who are looking for stronger mea- 
sures. But what we’re looking for 
are effective measures." 

A senior State Department offi- 
cial said later that a Security Coun- 
cil statement supported by China 
might be preferable to a resolution 
on which Beijing abstained. 

As recently as Wednesday, Sec- 
retary of State Warren M. Christo- 
pher said the United States was still 
presang for a resolution, which it- 
self was seen in some quarters as a 
mild response to North Korea’s re- 
fusal to allow international inspec- 
tions erf its nudear sites. 

At thayxnnt, the United States. 
Britain, France and Russia were 
pushing for a resolution that 
warned of follow-up action in the 
event of nonconipliance by Pyong- 
yang. This is widely seen as a threat 
of possible sanctions. 

In Beijing on Thursday, the For- 
eign Ministry said its “wdl-consid- 
ered position" was that urging 
North Korea to open its nudear 
sites could only aggravate a tense 
situation. 

North Korea, meanwhile, urged 
the United States on Thursday to 
resume negotiations on the crisis 
but repeated its opposition to fur- 
ther inspections of nuclear rites. 

“It is nonsenrical to urge us to 
it an additional inspection,” a 
i Korean spokesman said. “In 
order to pave the way for a solution 
to the nudear issue, the United 
Stales must first of all no longer 
pursue a hostile policy.” 


Quake Jolts Southern Iran 

The Associated Press 

NICOSIA — A moderate earth- 
quake shook Iran’s southern Ears 
Province on Thursday, but there 
were no immediate reports of dam- 
age or loss of life, according to the 
official press agency. IRNA. 


* political \on:<+ 


National Education Goals Signed Into Law 

SAN DIEGO — President Bill Ginlou signed a bill on Thursday 
that is designed to upgrade the quality of public education by setting 
the first nationwide standards and providing a total of up to SI 
billion a year to assist school systems that participate. 

He said the bill would set “standards for wbat every child in every 
American school should know in order to win when he or she 
becomes an adult.” 

Speaking at an outdoor ceremony at an elementary school here, 
Mr. Clinton said that the law, once it is fully in place, would 
establish “world class standards in reading and writing, math mid 
science, history, geography, foreign languages, civics and economics 
and the arts.” 

The “Goals 2000: Educate America Ant” represents a dramatic 
shift away from the long-standing tradition of letting states and 
localities set policies and approaches to education without federal 
influence. 

Although the program is voluntary, the lure of being able to tap 
into U.S. government funds is expected to generate broad participa- 
tion, much the way nationwide speed limits have been put in place 
by offering transportation funds to states that accept federal guide- 
lines. 

The education goals include the objective that by the year 2000 
“all students will be competent in core academic subjects” and that 
“the United States wifi be first in the world in math and science.” 

The new taw also calls for a nationwide high school graduation 
rate of at least 90 percent, compared with a current rate of about 75 
percent 

It establishes a National Education Goals Panel to assess efforts 
to achieve the goals, as well as a National Education Standards and 
Improvement Council and a National Skills Standards Board to 
establish academic and occupational standards. 

Congress has earmarked S100 million to develop the program and 
next year wifi be asked to approve 5700 million. Each year after that, 
it will be asked to authorize the expenditure of at least $1 billion to 
promote and assist reform efforts. ( Reuters) 

Virginia Senator Renews Attack on North 

WASHINGTON — Senator John W. Warner of Virginia un- 
leashed a new attack on Oliver L. North, saying he would not 
support Mr. North’s bid for the Senate even if Mr. North won the 
Republican nomination. 

Mr. Warner, a moderate Republican, had already questioned Mr. 
North’s moral fitness to serve in the Senate. In a letter to, Mr. 
North's rival for the nomination, James C. Miller 3d, he said he 
could not, "a matter of personal conscience,'’ urge voters to place 
their trust and confidence in Mr. North. 

Mr. Warner’s statement widened a breach between him and the 
conservative wing of the Republican Party in Virginia. Mr. Warner 
antagonized many conservatives last year when be refused to en- 
dorse the party candidate for lieutenant governor, Michael P. 
Fanis. Mr. North also is a favorite of many of the party’s conserva- 
tive activists. 

But the statement came amid growing indications that Mr. 
Warner’s outspoken opposition to Mr. North may be having the 
unintended effect of hurting Mr. Miller. 

Several party activists said that Mr. Warner’s tilt toward Mr. 
Miller had irked some Republican conservatives. 

In his letter, Mr. Warner again questioned Mr. North’s integrity. 
Mr. North, who came to national attention during the Iran-contra 
scandal has admitted that he lied to Congress about his activities in 
the Reagan White House. f WP) 

Pacfcwood Offers Apology for 'Whatever* 

WASHINGTON — Calmly fielding questions on a television 
call-in program. Senator Bob Packwood apologized for “terribly 
offensive'' conduct toward women. But the Oregon Republican said 
he could not remember most of those who bad accused him of sexual 
misconduct. 

Mr. Packwood's appearance on CNN marked the first time he 
had answered questions from the public about ethics allegations 
against him. The five-term senator, who has appeared tried recently, 
looked more robust on camera Wednesday. There were no sharp 
confrontations during the houriong show, and Mr. Packwood never 
appeared rattled. 

One caller told Mr. Packwood, “You are concerned more about 
your image than serving the people of the state.” And another said 
that the senator, who is divorced, “should be ashamed; be should 
apologize to his wife, his family, that he has acted so foolishly.” 

The Senate Select Committee on Ethics is investigating accusa- 
tions that that Mr. Packwood made unwanted sexual advances, 
tried to intimidate witnesses and altered his personal diaries to 
obstruct the investigation. 

Mr. Packwood offered an apology for “whatever it was 1 did.” 

The senator said he could remember only eight of the approxi- 
mately two dozen women who have accused him of sexual miscon- 
duct during the last two decades. Nonetheless, the senator acknowl- 
edged, “I must have approached them in a way that was terribly 
aoer." 


offensive. 1 can't rememt 

Quote/ U nquote 


(AP) 


Brent James, a doctor who runs an innovative quahty-of-care 
program for a chain of hospitals in Utah, on the effect that the 
health plan now being debated between the White House and 
Congress would have: “As a practical matter, you're going to face 
tremendous implementation problems. When someone imposes 
guidelines from outside, what happens is the doctors wifi find 1,000 
ways to fight you and end up doing things the other way." (NYT) 


Troubling Data 
On U.S. Pay Slips 

New York Tima Service 

WASHINGTON —The Census 
Bureau has provided new evidence 
of one of the most troubling trends 
in the American economy; a sharp 
increase in the percentage of people 
who work full time but cannot by 
themselves lift a family out of pov- 
erty. 

The percentage of Americans 
working full time but earning less 
than the poverty levd for a family 
of four, about $13, f “ 


13,000 a year, has 

by 50 percent in the part 13 
, the study said. 


risen 
years. 

Id 1992, 18 percent of the na- 
tion’s full-time workers earned less 
chan $13,091. compared with 12 
percent in 1979. The numbers are 
expressed in 1992 dollars, adjusted 
for inflation. 



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Page 4 



Herald 


INTERNATIONAL 

as 



tribune. 


PURI.IKHtD WITH THK NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


Insensitive to die Rules 


There will be plenty of time to explore 
whether laws were violated when the Clintons 
went into the land development business with 
James and Susan McDougal or when George 
Stephanopouks and other White House aides 
meddled with Treasury Department investiga- 
tions. For the moment, it is enough to ponder 
the fluid morality implicit in the Clintons’ tax 
returns and the records of Hillary Rodham 
Clinton's short but profitable career as a com- 
modities trader. The inescapable conclusion is 
that this couple, early and late, suffered [rom a 
thematic insensitivity to the normal rules of 
conflict of interest. At every turn of their finan- 
cial life, the then governor and first lady of 
Arkansas were receiving financial favors from 
individuals who bad something to gain from 
having friends in high places. 

Consider the Whitewater case. The 230-acre 
( 93-bectarc) development was supposed to be a 
50-50 partnership between the two couples. To 
be dean politically, the deal had to be one of 


tially compromising financial entanglements. 

The same goes for Mrs. Clinton. On an initial 
investment or SI ,000 she mode $98,000 trading 
in farm commodities. Her principal adviser was 
lames Blair, the lawyer for Tyson Industries; 
the broker be chose for her, Robert Bone, had 
worked for Tyson and been disciplined by 
regulators for not keeping good records. Once 
Mr. Clinton was in office, Tyson received $9 
milli on in state loans and very gentle treatment 
when it came to the water pollution associated 
with raising and cleaning chickens. 

Investigators are nowhere near the bottom of 
Whitewater, but we now have a a fairly dear 
idea or what it is about. It started with a well- 
meaning young couple who seemed to have an 
extraordinary indifference to, or difficulty in 
understanding, the normal divisions between 
government and personal interests. Their con- 
duct may not have been illegal but it was 
reckless and politically unattractive. 

To deal with these seedy appearances, Clin- 
ton supporters are now engaged in what we 
have come to recognize as The Arkansas De- 
fense. A central argument is that while the 
Clintons’ dealings were not pretty, you cannot 
apply the standards of the outside world to 
Arkansas, where a thousand or so insiders run 
things in a loosey-goosey way that may look 
unethical or even illegal to outsiders. This logic 
holds that whatever the Clintons did was pen- 
ny-ante stuff that the Republicans and the 
press ought to be willing to overlook in service 
to the higher national interests. 

Certainly, there is a national interest in a 
viable presidency and in swift progress on 
health care and other pressing issues. But the 
genius of the federal system does not reside in 
importing to Washington the faults and idio- 
syncrasies of the state capitals. The effort to 
keep a lid on the Clintons’ personal and finan- 
cial histories has led to the development of a 
distinctive Clinton style — to withhold critical 
information and respond furiously with attacks 
on the motives of critics, his a viable campaign 
practice. But the clumsy efforts to silence con- 
gressional critics and the possible White House 
interference with federal agencies demonstrate 
that it is a dangerous way to govern. 

— THE HEW YORK TIMES. 


equal investment and equal risk. But from the 
“ Goth of 


moment that Jeff Garth of The New York 
Times wrote the fust Whitewater story in 1992, 
the Clinton campaign and later the White 
House press office dodged questions and with- 
held documents. The reason is dear. The Clin- 
tons put up $500 initially and claimed losses of 
$43,635, most of it in payments on loans, by the 
time of the 1992 campaign. In contrast, the 
McDougals paid out $268,000 and withdrew 
$175,800 for a loss of 592^00. 

Although the records are muddled, the 
McDougals apparently paid dramatically 
larger amounts to support Whitewater than 
did their supposedly equal partners, the Clin- 
tons. And Mr. McDougaTs heaviest contribu- 
tions to the partnership came after he acquired 
Madison Guaranty, a savings and loan that was 
part of Bill Clinton’s regulatory responsibility 
as governor. The disorder of Whitewater and 
Madison records is such that it is unknown 
whether the Clintons benefited from any fund 
transfers between Madison and Whitewater, 
or whether Madison benefited from favorable 
treatment by Governor Clinton's regulators. 
That is a legal determination, but the political 
conclusion is clear. From the start of his gover- 
norship, Mr. Clinton was involved in poten- 


Happy With Cheap Oil 


Oil prices lurched downward again this 
week, continuing a long decline. That is wel- 
come to people who commute by car. It is also 
good for the American economy, which ex- 
pands more strongly with a drop in fuel costs. It 
has the same effect as a tax cut. The basic 
reason for cheaper oO is recession and slow 
growth in Japan and Europe. Thai held world 
oil consumption flat last year while production 
continued to rise in the countries that belong to 
OPEC the oil exporters’ cartel. OPEC met last 
weekend to see whether it could work oat an 
agreement to hold down production in order to 
hold prices up. Not for the first time, it failed. 
With a small but significant oversupply in 
prospect, buyers lowered their bids. 

The dispute in OPEC is a long-standing one. 
It sets Saudi Arabia and Kuwait against the 
other members, countries with less oil and 
larger populations. The more heavily populated 
OPEC countries always press for higher prices. 
Last weekend the Saudis and their friends 
resisted. They believe that if OPEC sets pro- 
duction ceilings, the others will cheat. More 
important, they are aware that inexpensive oil 
is deeply helpful to the governments in the 
industrial democracies — especially the United 
States — as they try to get their economic 
growth rates up and their unemployment 


down. The Saudis, Kuwaitis and the rest are 
returning a favor to the countries that defended 
them three years ago from their predatory 
neighbor Iraq and that, they hope, would also 
defend them from Iran. They are making an 
investment hr their national security. 

While a low price for oil is very convenient to 
the United States and the other big importing 
countries, it also contains certain dangers. It 
undercuts conservation. In the years of cheap 
gasoline — and you can now find it on sale for 
less than a dollar a gallon here and there in the 
Washington area — it is hard to main tain any 
momentum toward greater fuel efficiency. 
Cars, efficient or not, get used more than ever, 
as the daily jams on the highways demonstrate. 

Americans could have it both ways, drawing 
the economic advantages of low oil prices and 
the conservation benefits of high prices, if they 
were willing to put a stiff tax on gasoline. But 
that is apparently beyond the ability of Con- 
gress. in its absence; the country is enjoying the 
undiluted pleasures of cheap fuel It also makes 
the country vulnerable to crises and sudden 
disruptions of the pipeline, of winch there have 
been several in the past two decades. Bra that is 
an unpleasant possibility for winch this opti- 
mistic country shows Little concern. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 



Accounts differ drastically as to who or 
what was responsible for Monday’s gun battle 
in downtown Johannesburg that claimed at 
least 31 lives. But there can be link doubt that 
the larger responsibility for tins tragedy lies 
with Mangosithu Buthelezi, the Zulu chid and 
the only South African leader of consequence 
who refuses to participate in the national vote 
set for late ApnL In refusing, Chief Buthelezi 
has made common cause with white racists who 
oppose what South Africa’s men and women of 
goodwill have sought for generations: the 
scrapping of apartheid, nonradal elections and 
social and economic justice through common 
citizenship in a democratic state. 

Nelson Mandda’s African National Con- 
gress asserts that the massacre was detiberatdy 
provoked by Chief Butbdezi's Inkatha Free- 
dom Party in order to sabotage tbe April ballot- 
ing Fra its part, Inkaiha mamtaim the con- 
trary — that Zulu marchers were killed by 
ANC snipers as they approached the ANC 
headquarters. Independent witnesses cannot 
say for sure who fired first 

Still, the root of the matter lies in Chief 
Buthelezfs fervent opposition to a federalized 
South Africa. Even at this late hour, be might 
be persuaded to change his mind in rexnm for a 
face-saving concession. No South Africans are 
more adept at squaring these circles than the 
chiefs forma 1 friends and allies, F. W. de Klerk 
and Mr. Mandela. But if he persists as a wreck- 
er, Mr. de Klerk will be justified in taking the 
next step: ending the state subsidy to KwaZulu, 
the cilia's serai-in dependent homeland in Na- 


tal Province. There would be ample political 
justice in such a move. In years past, Pretoria's 
white masters did their best to promote Chief 
Buthelezi, who began to see himself as Sooth 
Africa's first black president. Inkatha was se- 
cretly armed by the government's security 
fraces. Whether or not a sinister “third force'’ 
ignited violence between Zulus and their ethnic 
rivals, these dashes certainty served the interest 
of the apartheid regime. 

Chief Buthelezi once credibly claimed wide- 
spread approval among Zulus and white busi- 
ness leaders. Now that support has crumbled 
along with bis standing in pre-deed on polls. 
When concessions are offered to meet his valid 
concerns about autonomy, be keeps shifting his 
bottom line and now demands the unattain- 
able: the reconstitution of the old, huge Zulu 
kingdom. At the University of Orange Free 
State, an exasperated black student asked, 
“Grirf Buthelezi, why do you as a black man 
not want us to vote after three centuries with- 
out any rights at all?" Incredulous jeers greeted 
the chiefs convoluted response. 

It would nevertheless be foolish to underesti- 
mate tins proud and difficult man's capacity to 
cause t rouble, especially in alliance with well- 
armed extremists. In view of these risks, every 
reasonable effort should be made to coax him 
on board. Should that fafl, and should Presi- 
dent de Klerk’s interim regime be compelled to 
end the subsidy and weigh the military occupa- 
tion of the KwaZulu homeland, Americans will 
know whom to blame, and whom to support. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 



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Eureka! 
A Triad 
For Italy 


By W. V, Harris 

EW YORK 


N EW YORK — A 

needs some temerity to criticize 


the choice freely made by Italy’s vot- 
ers in this week’s parliamentary elec- 
tion. Italians can man age their own 
affairs. But Italy is too imponant a 


nation for the health of its polity and 
of mdiffer- 


economy to be a matter 
race to the outside world. 


With this election, Italy put an end 
to one regime and started 


another. 

But. having thrown out one lot of 
scoundrels, the electorate has chosen 
as its new leaders, to fill the vacuum, 
some equally flawed people with a 
new set of vices all their own. 

And whether the victors can gov- 
ern Italy for long seems very ques- 
tionable. If they are unable to do so, 
real instability could follow. 

Last year’s electoral reforms, 
which made it easier for major parties 
or alliances to gain control of Parlia- 
ment, were in traded to restructure 
politics as a classic conflict between 
left and right. But tbe victorious 
right-wing affiance may fall apart be- 
fore tbe left learns how to convince a 
majority that it is fit to govern. Its 
failure to win the youth vote in this 
election was a particularly bad sign. 
All this could lead to a prolonged 
period of political tension. 

The winning alliance is led by the 
tycoon Silvio Berlusconi, the inventor 
of Forza Italia, a new party built on 
the idea of its founder as a son of 
national savior. This allian ce has a 
clear majority in the Chamber of 
Deputies, and although it win have at 
best a paper-thin majority in the Sen- 
ate. it will almost certainly be able to 
form a government 

Mr. Berlusconi's business affairs 
are one reason for concern. Through 
his holding company, Fminvest, he 
owns roughly half of Italy’s televi- 
sion, as well as the country’s largest 
supermarket chain, huge publishing 
and advertising concerns, and many 
other assets, including the trium- 
phant AC Milan soccer club. 

It so happens, however, that this 
conglomerate was at least S2J! billion 
in debt by the rad of 1993 — the true 
figure was probably higher — and in 
dire need of help, such as a govern- 
mental stimulus to domestic demand. 



form. His sole contribution to _ 
formation has been to assert that Italy 
should somehow reacquire the Adriat- 
ic regions of Istria ana Dalmatia frran 
the former Yugoslavia. Nobody, one 
hopes, takes tins seriously. 

His most prominent supporter is 
Alessandra Mussolini granddaughter 
of the dictator, who may now join the 
g overnment. Mr. Fhri is often attend- 
ed by young Nan-skins, who seemed 
mere pitiful than dangerous, until he 
helped win the national election. 

Keeping the neofasrists in political 
quarantine is a matter not only of 
historical decency but of immediate 
relevance. Italy now has racial tension 

respiting from legal and ill eg al immi- 
gration, largely from Africa, and as 
Mr. Finfs supporters gain confidence 


they wffl exacobate ft. 
Mr. 


Berlusconi's other ally is the 
raucous Umberto Bossi, leader of the 
Northern League, the political move- 
ment that encapsulates all sorts of 
regional resentments against Rome 
and the south. He has said be does not 
want Mr. Beriusconi as prime mhrisr 
ter, but that seems to have been simply 
a way to extract concessions. 

After the election, as before n, he 


finds himself in a dil emma: He can 
obtain the changes he wants only by 
allying himself with the lies of Mr. 
Berlusconi and Mr. Fini, but many of 
his supporters have no sympathy 
with these allies, especially Mr. Fun. 

In making common cause with 
those who support a strong central 
government, Mr. Bossi looks to some 
as if he has betrayed the federalist 
cause, and as a result his support has 
eroded in the last three months. Yet 
theNorthem League has nearly twice 
as many deputies as in the last Parlia- 
ment, and it is indispensable to Mr. 
BerinsconTs alliance. 

Thus Mr. Beriusconi has to provide 
both a strong government for Mr. 
Fini and a strong measure of decen- 
tralization for Mr. Bossi. Within a 
few months Mr. Bossi will have to 
deliver some thing to his followers or 
he will run into severe trouble. This 
could well lead 10 the collapse of the 
government by the end of the year. 

Economic policy will also cause 
considerable tension in the new gov- 
ernment. Mr. Berlusconi was elected 
an a free market platform, which un- 
doubtedly corresponds to the mood 
of a large pan of the population, and 


he has 
the 
10 


Television was the key to the cam- 
’s lav 


Some Really Do Reinvent Government 


paign. Gaps in Italy's laws allowed 
Mr. Berlusconi's three channels to 
bombard voters with propaganda on 
his behalf, with predictable results. 
His rise to power by means of his own 
television, although faintly reminis- 
cent of Citizen Kane, would have 
been unthinkable in America. 

Mr. Beriusconi built his television 
empire by means of dubious legality, 
had it retroactively legitimated 
through a deal with the now discred- 
ited former Prime Minister Bcttino 
Craxi — whose trial on other charges 
has just begun in Milan — and mis 
now used it in a manner that is an 
affront to dvil society. 

Hence his government is very short 
on legitimacy, and will never possess 
much unless Fminvest genuinely sells 
its television interests and Mr. Ber- 
lusconi runs again in a new election 
as a regular rich politician. 

The other members of bis troika 
are also problematic. The more im- 
portant is Gianfranco Frai. whose 
neofasdsl National Alliance got 13 5 
percent of the vote. 

Much nonsense has been talked, by 
Mr. Berlusconi among others, to the 
effect that Mr. Fmi is not “really" 
fascist, but the main difference is that 
he does not wear a ridiculous uni- 


By Stephen S. Rosenfeld 


^yASHINGTON — We Ameri- 


cans enjoy thinking of our- 
selves as bold and brave in shaping 
the future, but our weakness for self- 
congratulation obscures the fact that 
dozens of other nations are demon- 
strably bolder and braver. 

Granted, the United States is not in 
the desperate or suddenly new nation- 
al circumstances that typically provide 
the motivation and constituency for 


political ini dative. We already lave a 
tree : 


> market democracy. Our despera- 
tion. moreover, tends to crane in pock- 
ets, demographic and geographic; this 
inhibits the forming of a critical mass. 
Tinkering, making incremental new 
trade-offs, moving the pieces around 
in a crowded field, catching 19 to 
changes triggered by technology or 
new social attitudes; these consider- 
ations dictate most of the political 
agenda in the United States and most 
other Western democracies. 

To see how politics can really be 
done, you have only to lode at this 
week’s elections in Italy. The whde 
political class that ruled through two 
generations of Cold War has been 
ruddy dumped. Thousands of the 
best and brightest have been replaced 


by an uncertain but popularly ap- 
proved combination of new figures. 

Long mocked — unfairly — for 
their seemingly agitated and ineffec- 
tive mode of governance, the Italians 
decided, upon tbe demise of the Cold 
War, that the price of stability — 
massive corruption — no longer 
could be abided." They rare now em- 
barked on an experiment in revela- 
tion and renovation that makes even 
America's hottest political excite- 
ments, such as Watergate, Iran-con- 
tra and Whitewater, look trite. 

Mexico, a country Irving in several 
centuries, found itself last winter with 
a potentially perilous Indian uprising 
expressing the rages of those left far 
beyond. Already the government, with 
courage and imagination, had com- 
mitted. itself to a decade-long market 

r ung on a scale meant to transform 
whole economy and society. It 

inT < iiajrow military way but?yseri- 
ous moves to open the political mar- 
ket, too. On top of this now it must 
deal and is dealing, with a political 
assassination dial touches the coun- 
try’s deepest fears of destabilization. 
India, where goveanznent was noto- 


Entitlement Trouble Ahead for Clinton 


w 


ASHINGTON — Tic 
away offstagje is a politi 


By Robert Kuttner 


time bomb called the Bipartisan 
Commission on Entitlements. Pres- 
ident Bill CBmon agreed to set up 
the commission last August, as the 
price of gettin g an influential Dem- 
ocratic deficit hawk. Senator Bob 
Kerrey of Nebraska, to support his 
budget. The panel win report in 
December, and its recommenda- 
tions are likely to be a major embar- 
rassment to Mr. Clinton. 

The 32-member commission, 
chair ed by Mr. Kerrey and Repub- 
lican Senator John Danforth of 
Missouri, is dominated by people 
who think that “ratitlemrats" — 
namely. Social Security and Medi- 
care — are tbe devil’s own instru- 
ment Tbe commission’s executive 
order mandates it to identify “po- 
tential long-term budget savings" 
in entitlement programs. Yet the 
Gin ton a dminis tration's own top 
legislative priority is the first major 
new entitlement in a generation: 
universal health insurance. 

A majority of the commission's 
congressional members voted fra a 
constitutional amendment to bal- 
ance the budget. Tbe White House 
labored mightily to defeat tha t 
amendment, bv the narrowest of 
margins. The administration has set 
itself a trap, and compounded die 
damage by being careless about the 
co mm issi o n’s membership. 

Tbe co mm issi o n's executive direc- 
tor, appointed jointly by Senators 
Kerrey and Danforth, is Fred Gold- 
berg; framer IRS commissioner in 
the Bush adminis tration- Its chief of 
staff is Mark Wemberger, former tax 
counsel to Mr. Danforth. 

Of the other members, 20 were 
named by Democratic and Republi- 
can leaders of Coagress. Ten were 
named by Mr. Clinton. Even his 

appointees include prominent Re- 
publican fiscal conservatives, most 
remarkably tbe investment banka 1 
Peter G. Peterson, who has sprat the 
past decade warning that entitle- 
ments are bankrupting America. 

Mr. Peterson was urged on Mr, 
Clinton by fellow Wall Streeter 


Robert Rubin, who heads Mr. Clin- 
ton’s National Economic CoundL 
To get a flavor of the snare that Mr. 
Clinton has set for hrinsdf, consid- 
er Mr. Peterson’s new book, “Fac- 
ing Up: How to Rescue the Econo- 
my from Cr ushing Debt and Re- 
store the American Drea m ." 

It begins with the premise that 
dd>t is responsible for America’s 
economic slowdown and that enti- 
tlements are the cause of excess 
debL This is improbable on both 
counts. The national debt relative 
to total national income was twice 
Its current level in 1945, on tbe eve 
of a 20-year boom. And the biggest 
entitlement. Social Security, runs a 


r. Peterson admits that thanks 
to the Clinton deficit-reductio n 
program the deficit will decline to 
just 2 J 2 percent of gross domestic 
product m 1998. But h e uses v ery 
pessimistic economic assumptions 
to show the deficit rising to an im- 
probable 10 percent of GDP by tbe 
year 2010 , mid the debt ri sin g to 
1 12 pocrat of GDP by 2020. 

In truth, nobody has a due what 
the national debt win be 25 years 
into the future. There are simply too 
many variables — indudmgwtether 
Congress passes health reform Mr. 
Peterson acknowledges that infla- 
tion in health costs is a prim e culpni 
in the rising deficit, but he opposes 
insurance even 
cov- 

„ on health care. 

main remedy is to slash rati- 
tlements by taxing all bene fits re - 
craved by households with incomes 
above 535,000. He calls this policy 
an “affluence test.” (Only .a multi- 
millionaire, for whom cost is no ob- 
ject, could think that a awpk wffl 
an income of $35,000 is “afiment .7 
What we have here is an lde oiogi- 
cal assault on social insurance, 
qufiradmg as budgetary concern, if 
Americans value Social Socuntyaod 
Medicare but desire greater defiat 
reduction, there is an alternative to 


si n gling not social insurance benefits 
for extra taxation. Just raise top tax 
rales cat high-income taxpayers gen- 
erally — like Mr. Peterson! 

Social insurance, most notably 
Social Security and Medicare; is part 
of what binds people together as 
ritizras rather than mere winners 
and losers in a free market lottery. 
Since Franklin Roosevdt, social in- 
surance bas helped bind the Demo- 
cratic Party to (he wage-earning 
electorate, and in a way that tran- 
scends divisions of race and class. 
Not even Ronald Reagan dared at- 
tack Social Security, although his 
aides wanted to privatize it 

In addition. Social Security is 
America's most effective program of 
inmme redistribution. It, along with 
Medicare, is responsible for the dra- 
matic reduction of poverty among 
tbe aged. Social insurance, in short, 
is the political and moral high 
ground of American liberalism. _ 

It is no mystery why Republican 
conservatives would mount an at- 
tack on entitlements. Sashing enti- 
tlements accords with tbe party’s 
free market philosophy, and has the 
political virtue of dividing Demo- 
crats from their electoral base. It is 
harder to fathom why the Gin ton 
White House would provide tbe ve- 
hicle for this assanh. 

Recently, Representative Marjo- 
rie Margofi es-Mezvinsky, tbe flesh- 
man Democrat who gave Mr. Gin- 
ton a crucial vote when his budget 
was before the House, was back in 
her Pennsylvania district election- 
eering. The first part of her speech 
was a sti r ri ng call for universal 
health insurance. She concluded 
her remarks with a pledge to “cut 
entitlements,” Hello ... ? 

In the past, voters have looked 
to the Democrats to defend Social 
Security and Medicare. What will 
President Clinton do when -his 
own commission" calls for massive 
cuts? With this sort of confusion 
about first principles, it is small 
wonder that voters have a hard 
time idling the difference between 
the two parties. 

Washington Post Writers Group, 


rious for a stifling bureaucracy and 
socialist-type hostility to foreign in- 
vestment, is gambling on market 
opening, with all the political convul- 
sions that such a change entails. 

Gifle's astounding success in a 
similar earlier program has become 
an inspiration if not a direct model 
for parallel efforts around the globe. 

look at die forma Soviet bloc, 

■ where soul-twisting, society-wrench- 
ing chan ge has become so normal and 
routine as to elicit our yawns. The 
efforts by these countries to buQd a 
new national life practically from 
scratch put extraordinary demands cm 
the political leadership. Bloc graduates 
are now out of the exciting first stage 
of liberation into the long, painful and 
often unremarked second stage of coo- 
stxuction and consohdation. Every 
day they face challenges larger than 
anything — even health care reform — 
on the American table. 

Or note tbe travail of Israelis and 
Palestinians. A foreign policy peace- 
making initiative which is for the 
sponsoring United States an exercise 
in regional diplomacy (we will come 
out all right no matter how the exer- 
cise fares) is for the two paitnas 
nothing less than a matter of the life 
and death of the nation. 

In Sooth Africa, the different racial 
communities, accustomed to hate and 
violence, are calling each other to cre- 
ate swiftly and by political means a 
new multiracial democratic enter. 

In Germany, rather quietly, anoth- 
er project of historic dirnenaons, one 
often overlooked in the swirl of daily 
events, is unfolding under the title of 
national reunification. It amounts to 
a structural anti-poverty and demo- 
cracy program staggering in size and 
in ambition — to make all German 
citizens equal in fact as well as name. 

“Reinventing government" is a slo- 
gan that tbe Gmtou administration 
has given to what is in fact a potential- 
ly useful but limited technical pro- 
gram to apply contemporary business 
standards to the operations of tbe bu- 
reaucracy. For the real article of “re- 
inventing government,” we had better 
go to the many other countries that 
nave taken on this mission in a literal 
and true way. They apply democratic • 
means to giant projects at a time when 
Americans, even as we make a lot of 
noise about it, are working on what is 
in fact a small scale. Their effort is to 
be encouraged, their example studied, 
for good reasons of our own. 

The Washington Post. 


This Treaty 
Deserves 
Burial at Sea 


'ft' 


jr 


1 - 




r 




By William Satire 

L ONDON — LOST is a loser, but^ 
/ tbe United States is getting 


ready to sign on. 

The Law of the Sea Treaty has 


to reduce taxes. But 
deficit is running at about 
10 percent of the gross domestic 
product, and tire national debt is 
climbing to vertiginous heights. 

Mr. Berlusconi would like to cut 
public expenditure abruptly, but it 
will be difficult to sell that notion to 
his coalition partners — not to men- 
tion organized labor. And with un- 
employment at II percent, tbe do- 
mestic economy seems to need sti- 
mulation rather than the reverse. 

But tbe primary issue ought to be 
tire new prime minister’s control over 
so much television. There is probably 
no power in Italy that can now com- 
pel Mr. Berlusconi to make an honest 
divestment Yet it is probably the 
only action that can re-establish the 
necessary minimum of integrity in 
the political process and give Italy 
some chance of grappling with unem- 
ployment, organized rame and its 
other great problems. It will be Mr. 
Berlusconi’s next important test 


The writer, professor of history at 
Columbia University and author of 
“ Ancient literacy," contributed this 
comment to The New York Times. 


been ratified by 60 nations and will 
come into force on Nov. 16 of this 
year. Tbe big question — one that 
will affect global business on and 
under the sea for generations — is 
whether the United States w£Q sub- 
scribe to what Third World leaders 
and international bureaucrats hail as 
“the constitution of the oceans,” ■ 

I have long argued that the United 
States should noL Although many of 
tire treaty's navigational and fishing 
provisions are unobjectionable, the 
core Of the new international law is a 
collectivist cartel that conflicts with 
U.S. national interests and betrays 
the spirit of capitalism. 

Back in the 70s, as the have-not 
nations were touting a “new world 
economic order" to redistribute the 
world's wealth. Cart elites and some 
liberal Republicans enlisted m the 
cause to declare the resources of the 
sea bottom “the common heritage of 
mankind." (That was before we be- 
came “humankind.") 

Their essential idea was that entre- 
preneurs of the industrial nations 
would mine the seas for mineral 
wealth, just as explorers and discov- 
erers (fid for centuries, but' with this 
difference: Most of the product of 
flee enterprise would be turned over 
to a socialist “Enterprise," a vast new 
United Nations bureaucracy that * 
would both regulate and compete 
with the miners of the sea. 

The philosophy was wrong. John 
Locke, on whose writings Thomas 
Jefferson drew, held that Mien a 
person mixed his labor with a mate- 
rial resource, the person acquired a 
property right in that resource; 

That provided a profit motive, the 
incentive to explore and develop 
that created fortunes and built in- 
dustrial democracies. 

But under the Marxian collectivist 
philosophy expressed in tbe Law of 
the Sea, tire ocean resources belonged 
not to the ones who found it but to 
the United Nations. An OPEC-styie 
cartel would graciously allow the de- 
velopers to keep a part of their stake, 
but would demand that they share 
their technology and would deter- 
mine production and prices. 

To its eternal credit the Reagan 
administration saw this basic conflict 
of ideology and said to LOST negoti- 
ators: Nothing doing. 




Ronald Reagan’s principled rejec- 
Cato 


tion. as Doug Bandow's recent 
Institute study points out, caused 
siring of teet! 


great gnashing of teeth among diplo- 
mats at tire United Nations and poli- 
ticians in scones of Third World 
countries who had been counting on 
lifetime sinecures with perks in the 
LOST “Enterprise,’* to be based 
in sanny Jamaica. 

Despite the drop in mineral prices 
-that discouraged expensive seabed 
exploration, and blind to worldwide 
loss of interest in socialist economics, 
bureaucrats pressed ahead 
Enter the Clinton administration 
with its m u ltinationalism and multi- 
culturalism and mnltimulti-ism. 
Thanks to the UN representative, 
Madeleine Allnight, ana gnomes in 
the State Department who never met 
a global treaty they didn't like, LOST 
was found Their technique was to 
dress up tbe pact with marirct rheto- 
ric, drop the requirement to share 
technology with the Third World, 
and slightly modify other egregious 
offenses to free enterprise. 

Something happens to diplomats 
who get involved in a diplomatic 
“process”: Tbe deal becomes the 
goal Thor measure erf success is s 
flock of signatures on a document at 
a televised ceremony with souvenir 
pens handed out all around 
When the Qinton State Depart- 
ment is asked about the status of 
LOSTT, the answer is: “Hasn't made it 
up to tbe seventh floor yet” Secretary 
Warren Christopher has his hands 
full with a threat from a bellicose 
North Korea and cannot, focus . 00 
convoluted philosophical disputes.’ 

What wifi happen? When LOST 
gats up to Foggy Bottom’s seventh 
floor, Mr. Christopher will lawyer 
a tittle, make sure the United States 
has a veto, get some Pentagon admi- 
ral to praise its unnecessary legit- 
imization of Strait of Gibraltar pas- 
sage, and have President Bill Clinton 
sign it as a symbol of the brave new 
multinational world 
Then tbe Senate will decline to 
ratify LOST because its central pro- 
vision is anti-Eree-enterorise. Is such 
a display of disunion m the presi- 
dent’s interest? Or in America’s? 

No. The time to drop the vast 
boondoggle of LOST is now. 

The New York Times. 


\ 


iffl Li] 

Hrati 


1 - . 




BV OUR PAGES: 100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 


1894: A Carolina Revolt communicate to the German Goy- 


NEW YORK — The north-eastern 
part of tbe State of South Carolina is 
practically in a condition of revolu- 
tion. Some of the State distillery 
spies recently attempted to search a 
house in Danington county. The cit- 
izens armed themselves and the re- 
sult was a collision with the distill- 
ery officials in which several citizens 
were shot. A mob then gathered and 
routed the spies after severe street 
fighting. The Governor ordered the 
fourth brigade of the Charleston Mi- 
litia to the scene. They refused to go. 
Then he ordered out-of-town com- 
panies to come to the State capital. 
Nearly all refused The Governor, 
fearing a general riot, technically 
seized the railroad and telegraphs 
and forbade trains and telegrams 
being sent without his orders. 


emmrat's plenipotentiary the deci- 
sion of the Council of Fo 


-our on the 

. .. - - Jon. There is reason » 

believe that the Marshal has been 
authorized to take an unbending atti- 
tude and to insist that General Hal- 
lers troops be lanH wi at Dan trig. aD 
facilities being accorded for the oper- 
ation by the Germans. Marshal Focb 
has already intimated that the Get- 
®an representative must come pre- 
pared to accept the Allies' proposals 
without further shilly-shallying. 



t'-’ 1 


h.S-- 


i*?-" 1 


1919: Dantzig Question 

PARIS — Marshal Focb will leave 
Paris for Spa tomorrow [April 2] to 


1944: A Soviet Victory 

MOSCOW — [From our New York 
edition:] The Soviet Union, in possi- 
bly its biggest diplomatic victory thus 
f ar in the war, nas forced Japan to 
snrender coal and oil concessions on 
SaUjalm Island, north of Japan, which 
still had iweaty-rix years to run, ir was 
announced today [March 311 TT» up 
per half of £nlrh^}fn Tgianri, which is 
ncar , Siberia, is Soviet territory, the 
southern half is Japanese. 








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Page 5 


OPINION 


Is There Anything Still Left 

In America’s Sexual Closet? 

By George F. Will 

W " Sa - vs of ^™on: Last Monday two coosecu- 

S3 m£ 5 sm: 

Men 


■ closet." Which 
; one wonden What soa'ety is Dr 
Joyadyn Elders living in? Surety here is 
an interesting sensibility if she lives in 
todays America and frets that there is 
msuffiaou thinking and talking about 
things sexual 

America’s is a society in which par- 
cat? can hardly watch television with 
their children without wincing, in which 

a walk past a magazine rack is a walk on 

the wild side, in which before or after the 
steamy soap operas have got the after- 
noon television audience panting, on 
come Geraldo, Mould and Salty — 
“Next, bisexual grocers and the lingerie 
they love!” Someone should send the 
surgeon-general some tapes of the 
“shock jocks" now flourishing cm radio 
— Howard Stem and the resL That 
would assuage her anxiety that sexuality 
is being “repressed" by “Victorian mo- 
rality" m an America that needs “to be 
more open about sex.” 

The surgeon-general should be grati- 
fied by the out-of-lhe-doset television 
commercial for little Hyundai automo- 
biles. In it, two women speculate that 
men who buy big cars are wunpenwiing 
for small pauses. Observing the driver of 
a large car, one woman says “He must be 
compensating for a ... shortcoming?” 
Of the man who drives up in a Hyundai, 
the other woman says, “I wonder wfaat 
he’s gpt under the hood.” A columnist for 
Ad Age notes that, in the argot of adver- 
tising, this is an ad campaign based on 
“penis-length positioning.'' 

Imitation really is the sincerest form 


and “Hearts Afire,” featured penis 
jokes. Given that such is now the stuff of 
mass entertainment and advertising, it is 
a mystery what the surgeon-general 
thinks is left back there in the recesses of 
America’s sexuality closet, and why she 
wants it — whatever it is — oul 

The river of national life would seem 
lo be silting up rather rapidly with sexu- 
ality in all its permutations — gays in 
the mOitaiy, gays in the Si. Patrick’s Day 
parades, Bob Packwood, Michael Jack- 
son, Madonna, MTV, “date rape" semi- 
nars for university fr eshmen, and so on, 
and on. But the surgeon-general, in an 
interview with The Advocate, a Los An- 
geles-based magazine for homosexuals, 
indicates that die thinks the United 
States is suffering from sexual reticence. 

In the process of endorsing adoption 
of children by homosexuals, and em- 
bracing the fiction that 10 percent of 
young people are homosexuals, she says 
“sex is good, sex is wonderful." Verity it 
can be, but Dr. Elders’s effusions are not 
exactly all that the United States just 
now needs to hear from its principal 
public health official. 

Is it good and wonderful sex that is 
making so many 14-year-old mothers? 

From boom boxes carried by young 
males down city streets comes 2 Live 
Crew's song “Me So Homy," and lyrics 
about how fun it is to “bust the walls” of 
vaginas. Not good. Not wonderful. 

Tire New York Times reports a resur- 
gence of what it delicately describes as 
“commercial establishments where peo- 
ple meet for sex." It m eans places like 



A Darker View of the 9 50s 
On a Desperate ' Carousel 9 


N EW YORK — To any American 
who was around in the 1950s, 

Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammer- 

Stein 2d were as corny as Kansas in 
August — and as much a pan of the 
decade's oppressively sunny landscape 

MEANWHILE 

as Ike, backyard barbecues and Ozzre 
and Harriet. 


By Frank Rich 

“The King and I.” But not only did 
Rodgers and Hammerstdn write it, they 
did so when they had no reason to be 
gloomy. “CarouseT made its debut on 
the heady eve of V-E Day. It was the 
team's follow-up to “Oklahoma!" — - the 
most beloved and lucrative musical 
Broadway had ever seen. 

Liberated by success to say whatever 
they pleased, Rodgers and Hammeretcin 
chose to depict an America haunted by 



the Adonis theater, a cinema on Eighth 
Avenue between 43rd and 44th streets 
in Manhattan. New York City is esti- 
mated to have about 50 similar estab- 
lishments where people go for sex, of- 
ten for anonymous sex with multiple 
partners. The city government knows 
that it will have to care for many of the 
more than 80,000 “AIDS orphans” — 
children whose mothers died of AIDS 
— that the nation will have by the end 
of this decade. The city closed the Ado- 
nis in January because not all sex is 
good and wonderful. 

When used by advanced thinkers like 


Dr. Elders, the phrase “in the closet” 
means “unliberated," But would-be 
liberators like Dr. Elders have a prob- 
lem, there being little remaining in the 
way of laws or mores from which any- 
one can be liberated. Sure, in some 
cities children who are not yet in the 
sixth grade are denied information 
about anal intercourse, but such minor 
imperfections in American liberty 
make for an uninspiring agenda for 
sexual liberators. 

It really is no longer daring to say, as 
Dr. Elders did to The Advocate, “I feel 
that God meant sex for more than pro- 


creation." and of course Dr. Elders has a 
right to construe God’s will as she pleas- 
es. But can someone explain why a gov- 
ernment official, and particularly this 
one, is favoring us with such thoughts? 
Where in the job description of the sur- 
geon-general does it deal with the duty 
to issue public lamentations about 
America’s sexual repression? 

Repression is what she implies by her 
remarkable judgment that American so- 
ciety — has she seen Calvin Klein un- 
derwear ads? — “wants to keep all sexu- 
ality in the closet" 

Washington Post Writers Group. 


of “Carousel" last week. The audience 
came to New Yolk’s Lincoln Center for 
a sentimental nostalgia trip back to that 
idyllic America of cockeyed optimism. 
Tncii-aH they found themselves aban- 
doned in a dark alley. 

Sure, the lovers still sing “If I Loved 
You." But tire evening begins with the 
grim apparition of a tum-of-the-cen tury 
New England mill where young women 
teal in sweatshop misery. Only when a 
whistle shrieks at closing time does the 
hurdy-gurdy Rodgers waltz swell, send- 
ing the laborers twirling through the 
factory gates for a pathetically brief es- 
cape to a gaudy fairground. 

Once there, the heroine, Julie Jordan, 
books up with Billy Bigelow, a carousel 
barker who drifts into unemployment, 
alcoholism, wife-beating, armed rob- 
bery and suicide. Their Maine town is 
ruled by a mean class system in which 
even the police and God com 

the mill owner a gain _ 

“CarouseT sounds more like ^Town 
Without Pity” than a piece by the au- 
of “The ” ’ 


ments at Lincoln Center, the darkness 
he mines in “Carousel" is all in 
the original lexL 

But until now that true “Carousel" 
had been suppressed. It disappeared in 
the ’50s, when Hollywood and a thou- 
sand stock productions bowdlerized the 
show to fit the treacly conformist culture 
of a decade whose rigid dogma was 
sexless suburban family bliss. 

Confronting the unexpurgated “Car- 
ouseT in 1994, we can see clearly that it 
lefls tire truth about its ere rather than 
preaching the expected homilies. There 

•BiDyBigcl 


were plenty of B 
to them. 


conspire with 


thors 


Sound of Music” and 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


As Needed as Ever 

Regarding the editorial “Backward in 
East Europe” (Opinion, March 22): 

The editorial from The New York 
Times focused on the controversial de- 
cision of the Hungarian center-right 
government to dismiss 200 television 
and radio journalists “allegedly for 
budgetary reasons.” The article noted 
that “hundreds of broadcasters were 
sacked in Belgrade after elections in 
early 1 993," adding that similar occur- 
rences were taking place in Slovakia 
and, with variations, “similar assaults 
on independent journalism ... are 
now commonplace in former Commu- 
nist countries.” 

It is against such a background that 
the U.S. Congress, of its own volition, 
is withdrawing support for its strongest 
tool of democratic instruction: Radio 
Free Europe/ Radio liberty, my em- 
ployer. Some 150 employees, inemding 
members of departments broadcasting 
to Hungary, Poland, Afghanistan and 


the Czech ■ Republic, have been dis- 
missed. The history, traditions and leg- 
ends of these broadcasting depart- 
ments have been irrevocably destroyed. 

Washington continues to pursue its 
policy of dividing the departments, pro- 
posing to disperse them without rhyme 
or reason among Budapest, Prague, 
Washington and Munich. Moreover, the 
next wave of dismissals is expected to 
take place by the end of June and num- 
ber some 400 employees. 

ALINA PERTH GRABOWSKA. 

Munich. 

Turkey and the Kurds 

Regarding “An Appeal to Turkey” 
(Letters. March 18) from Bernard 
Kouchner and Bernard Dorin: 

In light of the reportedly imminent 
offensive by the Turkish military 
against its 10 million Kurdish minority, 
we in Western Europe would do well to 
remember a similar genocide that Tur- 
key launched against another of its mi- 


norities; the Armenians, during 1915- 
1922. Today, the only reminders of this 
ancient culture in Turkey are derelict 
monasteries and churches converted 
into mosques. 

How can a nation dial has committed 
genocide with impunity be trusted with 
the faith of the Kurds now? Once, the 
West turned a blind eye to Turkey's 
appalling h uman rights record because 
of its strategic location vis-a-vis the 
Soviet Union. 

With the ending of the Cold War, the 
time has come for Western governments 
to relay to Turkey in no uncertain terms 
th« either the Turkish government 
dean up its human rights record and its 
oppression of minorities or risk being 
ostracized like Iraq. 

STEPHAN VRDESSEN. 

Hertogenbosch, Netherlands. 


The Turkish stale has long been t 
ing to end the terrorism inst 
the Kurdish Workers Party, 
this has never entailed — and never will 


ogbeen try- 
istigated by 
f. However, 


— “the total destruction of the Kurd- 
ish area and the death of thousands of 
innocent civilians" or “genocide,” 
as Mr. Kouchner and Ambassador 
Doiindaim. 

Regardless of the Kurdish Workers 
Party's orientation — Marxist- Leninist 
or otherwise — it is a terrorist organiza- 
tion which kills inno cent civilians. Like 
any other state in the world, the Turkish 
republic will never negotiate with a ter- 
rorist organization. 

The establishment of a full-fledged 
democracy in Turkey is the desire and 
goal of every Turkish citizen. Turkey 
needs support, not threats, from its 
friends in building a robust democracy. 

ENVER YUCES AN. 

Fontainebleau. France. 

Asia and Democracy 

Regarding “Clinton’s Asia Policy Runs 
Big Risks” (Business/ Finance, March 25) 
by Reginald Dale: 

Mr. Dale suggests that the United 


States look to methods of physical pun- 
ishment such as flagellation for minor 
crimes like van dalism as a potential so- 
lution to die country’s crime problem. 

While such methods may be success- 
fill in reducing the level of crime, h can 
only be at the cost of a diminished sense 
of the dignity of the human being. 

Similarly, Mr. Dale criticizes tire Gin- 
ton administration’s “hectoring" at Ori- 
na on its human rights record. He urges 
a disentangling of human rights from 
economic negotiations, a recommenda- 
tion that shows the ngliest face 
of capitalism — that of insensitivity to 
the hmnfln condition. 

Mr. Dale is correct in citing the dif- 
ferences between Western and Asian 
value systems as an obstacle to achiev- 
ing an effective Asia policy. But some 
of these differences are not of so trivial 
a nature that they can be ignored with- 
out betraying fundamentally demo- 
cratic values. 

ROZELLA OLIVER. 

Barcelona. 


Faces of Europe 


„ * Whose Face Will 

Mark the Euro-Bill?" (Business/ Fi- 
nance, March 21) by Brandon Mitdtener: 

The European Union could embellish 
its currency with natural features com- 
mon to more than one country, like tire 
Alps or the Danube. Or it coaid depict 
such supranational European achieve- 
ments as the CERN particle-physics 
laboratory or the Airbus. 

But please, no politicos or financiers. 
If personages are u> be displayed, let 
than be, rather than mythical or allegor- 

notab^to > mutual^derstanding and 
international cooperation. 

THEODOR SCHUCHAT. 

Bellevue, Washington. 

Surety, Jean Monnet is the logical first 
choice. 

V.W.H. GREENWAY. 

Paris. 


and women 

loyal to them, as well as a 25 percent 
poverty rate, by the prosperous ’50s. But 
Americans were expected to keep whis- 
tling happy tunes. Wife-battering was 
barely acknowledged, and the rising in- 
take of alcohol and tranquilizers took 
place behind dosed ranch-house doors. 

Today debunking the happy postwar 
years is an academic industry. But art 
speaks more powerfully than sodology. 
While the Lincoln Center “Carousel" 
unfolds in beautiful sets, its New Eng- 
land is not quaint but lonely, more Ed- 
ward Hopper than Norman Rockwell 
The lovers, “two little people" who 
“don’t count at all," in Billy's bitter 
words, are a hot pair, but they grope 
desperately for each other against a vast 
moonlit night that only emphasizes their 
lowly status in an indifferent universe. 

From that moment “Carousel” be- 
comes disturbing because it starts to 
wm timeless. As Bitty has an afterlife, 
so does the America with which Rodgers 
and Hammerstdn surrounded him. 

Everyone in “CarouseT looks familiar 
to us. Even the show’s proper, upwardly 
mobile Mr. and Mrs. Snow could be that 
couple whose boisterous summer cook- 
outs don’t quite dispel the slink of booze 
and the muffl ed sounds of mari tal brawls. 

At llncnhi Caiter. the audience begins 
sobbing as soon as it hears “You’D Never 
Walk Alone," but is that because anyone 
mlrre the anthem’s words literally? Every- 
thing about this musical says that we are 
alone. The audience crying at “CarouseT 
realizes that it is up to us to break Ameri- 
ca’s unending cycles of social injustice 
and domestic violence. And that not even 
Rodgers and Hammerstdn, the soothing 
parental figures we had always depended 
on, can bail us out 

The New York Times. 


GENERAL NEWS 


Syria Likely to Stay 
On Trafficking List 


By Ann Devroy 
and Thomas W. Lippman 

Washington Post Service 

WASHINGTON — Overruling 

recommendations from lower-level 
officials, Secretary of State Warren 
M. Christopher has told the White 
House that Syria should remain on 
the U.S. list of nations that are 
involved in the intern ational drug 
trade. 

In daridmg that Syria should not 
be granted a waiver in the “nation- 
al interest” from the dreg listing, 
and thus be exempted from certain 
sanctions, Mr. Christopher headed 
off a potential political uproar. 

Democratic congressional 
sources said Representative 
Charles E. Schumer, Democrat of 
New~York, among others, was set 
to denounce the Clinton adminis- 
tration for rewarding Syria s coop- 
eration in the Middle East peace 
process with a ruling that could 
bring economic benefits despite a 
lack of significant effort to disasso- 
ciate itself from the international 
drug trade. 

j&natnr Jesse Helms, Republi- 
can of North Carolina, was pre- 
pared to read into lhe Congressio- 
nal Record the names of high- 
ranking Syrian officials believed to 
be involved in the drug trade, con- 
gressional sources said. 

President Bill Clinton is required 
by law to submit to Congress by 
Friday a list of nations that are not 
cooperating with U.S. mD-oarwl- 
icsefforts or working on their own 


to curb the drug trade. Syria is one 
of 26 nations on the current list and 
will be included on the new list. 
State Department officials said. 

Nations on the lisi may not re- 
ceive U.S. foreign aid or U.S. sup- 
port for World Bank loans, but the 
president is authorized to grant a 
waiver for any nation if he deems it 
in the U.S. “national interest.” 

Administration officials said 
thm a junior staff member on the 
White House National Security 
Council had hinted to families of 
victims of lhe 1988 bombing of Pan 
Am Flight 103 that the administra- 
tion was poised to grant Syria an 
exemption that effectively would 
have removed it from the list. 

Removal from the list woiikl 
have little practical impact, offi- 
cials said, because Syria remains on 
the U.S. list of nations that pro- 
mote terrorism but it might have 
had symbolic significance in win- 
ning Syrian assent to a peace agree- 
ment with Israel, they said. 

Pan Am 103 family members — 
who hold Syria at least partly re- 
sponsible for the 1988 bombing 
over Lockerbie, Scotland, despite 
the official U.S. position that Libya 
was the culprit — immediately be- 
gan contacting members of Con- 
gress and reporters to alert them to 
the potential waiver for Syria. By 
Wednesday night they said they 
had received assurance, that no 
waiver would be granted. 

“It is up to the president to make 
the final decisions," Mr. McCuny 
said. 



_ Noftai Sdflkf/Tbc Aasodacd PK» 

BOMBING IN EGYPT — Police inspecting damage from a bomb Thursday outside a 
Commercial National Bank branch in the Cairo suburb of Mnbandiseen. One peison was hurt 

... . . . . ■ l ,<A1 L 1.. .1.. *■ — ..I.... n rantn r t urnrrr 


iinai 


COCOM: Cold War Watchdog Dies 


Continued from Page 1 

said Russia was reconsidering 
whether to join a partnership pro- 
gram with NATO. 

A brief statement at the end of 
the meeting said that governments 
would attempt to ensure that weap- 
ons or high-tedmology goods with 
potential military applications 
were not soil to regions where they 
could “contribute to the develop- 
ment or enhancement of threaten- 
ing military capabilities,” 

The Clinton administration's an- 
nouncement on computers and 
telecommunications equipment 


i meeting in Washington. 

The agreement to keep some re- 
strictions in place reflects the fact 
that “we 5tu live in a world of 
hazards,” said Robert E Rubin, 
bead of the White House National 
Economic Council, who an- 
nounced the new policy. Underlin- 
ing the tug and pull of administra- 
tion’s export policy, he also 
stressed President BiD Clinton's de- 
sire to help U.S. companies com- 
pete abroad. 

Despite the continuing coopera- 
tion on weapons proliferation poli- 
cy, each country is now free to 
make its own decisions about what 


to export. 
Ui>. busi 


businesses feared that they 


HEBRON: 160 International Observers to Be Stationed in West Bank 


Continued from Page 1 


thereby to vitiate any claim thal a 
Israel might lave on these territo*' 
ties in a final settlement.” Now, he 
said, Israel has “prejudiced the fi- 

" oal negotiations in favor of Arab 

sovereignty” 

BARRIERS: japan Is Criticized 

plied, “Symbolic forces cany sym- 


Tokyo last year totaled bil- 
lion, up $10 billion from 1992. 

Washington singled out several 
areas of particular cpncem,^g- 
ing telecommunications, medical 

devices, insurance and autos. 

In addition, the report condud- 
ed: “The United States is.notwffl- 

— j— ( 3 ^) agreements that ao 

it in a tangible difference m 

■ _ n 


ice. , , 

The U.S. administratiMS^- 
mands that Japan aece^^ 

r™. inrtvwmie imports wot 


Besides Japan, the 12~nalion Eu- 
ropean Union had the longest 
chapter in the report. While criti- 
rrymg European restrictions on 
programming of U.S. films, the re- 
port also noted that the recent 
world trade accord would reduce 
European agricultural barriers. 
•n/L mibM imt Frani 


boHc pistols and shoot symbolic 
bullets." 

In Tunis, Ahmed Qurew, a FLO 
official also known as Abu Ala, 
said the Hebron force would com- 
prise 90 observers from Norway, 35 
from Italy and 35 from Denmark. 

The Palestinians appear to have 
won permission to reappoint Mus- 
tafa Natshe, the farmer mayor of 
Hebron who was removed a decade 


ago by the Israeli authorities. 

Although the reappointment is 

not directly mentioned in the 
agreement, the document refers to 
a Palestinian “Mayor of Hebron” 
who will be pan of a joint Isra di- 
Palestinian oversight panel ■ 

How the international face will 
operate has yet to be worked out, 
but Palestinians in Hebron hove 
generally greeted the idea with 


skepticism, saying it will do little to 
reduce the friction between armed 
Jewish settlers and (he Palestinians. 

The PLO is weak in Hebron, a 
conservative and religious city of 
100,000 where Hamas, the Islamic 
Resistance Movement, has always 
enjoyed wide support. Hamas and 
other groups which reject the Isra- 
et-PLO accord criticized the new 
agreement 


PERRY: U.S. Cautions That Another Korean War Is Not Impossible 


would face tighter restrictions than 
competitors m Europe and Japan 
on exports of “dual-use" technol- 
ogy, which can have both civilian 
and military applications. 

In previous administrations, the 
UJS. desire to take the lead in con- 
trolling weapons proliferation led 
to export tots or tough licensing 
requirements on some convention- 
al high-tech products that could be 
purchased off the shelf in many 
foreign coumries. 

But the announcement on tele- 
communications and computers 
appeared to sweep most of those 
concerns away for UJS. computer 
and telecommunications compa- 
nies. 

“We’re quite happy,” said Greg 
Garda of (he American Electronics 
Association. “Td give the admini.fr- 
nation a cigar — a Cuban one if 
they weren’t embargoed. This is a 
good deal for us." 

“A home run," said Christopher 
Pa dilla, a Washington government 
affairs official at AT&T Corp-i 
which has been seeking permission 
to sell high-speed digital telephone 
switches to C hina and Russia. It 
now has a green light to do so, he 
said. 

According to U.S. industry anal- 
ysis, Russia proposes to purchase 
several billion dollars' worth of 
telecommunications equipment 
over the next three to four years. 
China's ambitions are even greater: 
It may spend $40 billion by the end 
of the decade, according to AT&T. 

“This announcement means that 
American companies can now par- 
ticipate in these enormous mar- 
kets," said Mr. Padilla. 

Instead of requiring item-by- 
item export licenses, which took 
nearly 60 days to process on aver- 
age, the U.S. Commerce Depart- 
ment will now grant exporters gen- 
eral licenses to ship most 
conventional computer and tele- 
communications products provid- 
jed the buyer is a civilian customer, 
(not a military one. No advance 


en 
not 
the 
The U. 


SKKSSSSS 

negotiations in Feb- 


hetradeofficecleariy^- 

r n for criticism, 

Iia Shapiro, cautioned 

curing solely on any one 
r practice. 


frenen must iw 

which is to come into effect next 

year, saying it could “reduce the 

broadcast of American nmsc by as 

iwm*h as 30 percent from current 
levels ** 

It also co mplained that Spam's 
licensing system for allowing 
dubbed non-European films mto 
the country cost the American film 
industry $15 million a year. 

Trade barriers in China, Korea, 
and Taiwan also were described. 


-racing up u 

(Reuters, Bloomberg, AFP) catastropnic 


Continued from Page 1 
administration for a 
North Korea, as some conservative 
and former Bush administration officials have 
also urged. His view is not shared tty some 
officials at (he State Department ana in die 
Seoul government, who- have argued that war 
can best be avoided by eschewing harsh rheto- 
ric and emphasizing diplomatic solutions. 

In blunt terms, Mr. Perry said that “we’re 
looking at two very grim alternatives” in North 
Korea. He said one possibility was that the 
North Kore ans could amass within several 
years a substantial arsenal of nuclear warheads 
that could fit atop ballis tic missies capable of 
reaching neighboring countries. 

The other alternative, Mr. Perry said, was 
“facing up to them in a way that coma cause a 
war.” 


Since this alternative is so dangerourihe 
added, Washington's strategy is to F 00 ®” 
“step by step" toward sanctions that may wmd 
up backing North Korea into a comer “from 
which it feels it has to lash back." 

But Mr. Perry made it clear that this danger 
would not deter Washington from taking what- 
ever actions were needed to prevent North 
Korea from Foeeeding with its midear pro- 
gram. 


he said. 

Mr. Perry divided U.S. military preparations 
into two categories: nonprovocauve, kw-pro- 
file steps being taken now, and more serious 
measures Sat would be taken if the Untied 
Nations imposes economic sanctions against 


North Korea, an action the secretary estimated 
to be at least several months away. 

Aircraft spare parts and main t enance crews 
are being sent to mflitary bases in South Korea, 
Japan and elsewhere in the region, he said. The 
Defense Department is also taking unspecified 
steps , to prepare for the “rand insertion” of 
weaponry capable of countering North Korean 
artillery and is preparing for the potential de- 
ployment of a second battalion of Patriot mis- 
sile interceptors to South Korea. 

The first U.S. Patriot battalion, announced 
last week, is preparing to leave the Oakland 
Army Base in California for South Korea, 
where it will be used to help defend U.S. air 
bases near SeouL The second will be shipped in 
the event U.S. fences are “facing a confronta- 
tion," Mr. Perry said. 


If the product could be used for 
advanced weapons production, ex- 
porters must obtain licenses. 

Commerce Secretary Ronald H. 
Brown said the change would make 
U.S. businesses more competitive 
abroad, “while mam mining con- 
trols on Items and technologies we 
cp n $ider to be sensitive for security 
and nonproliferation reasons." 

Commerce Department officials 
estimated that the number of ex- 


r , tissues 

— 25,000 last year —would drop 
by half under the new system. 

But stiff debates He ahead over 
the future control of sensitive tech- 
nologies other than computers and 
tdecommumcations, congressional 
and adminis tration officials say. 


bune _ 
1994 ‘ 
ige7 


nster- 

11,300 


my 


SKULL: 

FUUngaBig Gap 

Continued from P&ge 1 

tended. The discoverers described 
the skull as not only the youngest 
and largest but also the only rela- 
tively intact one at the af arenas 
species, which lived for almost 1 
milli on years in the region from 
Ethiopia in the north to Tanzania 
in the south. 

The famous fossil footprints at 
Laetoti, in Tanzania, wot presum- 
ably made by an afarensis adult 
and child out for a walk 3.5 minion 
years ago- This is the earliest direct 
evidence for upright walking by hu- 
man ancestors. 

The longevity of the afarensis 
species was remarkable in itself, the 
discovery team said, noting how 
few detectable evolutionary 
changes seemed to occur between 
the first known afarensis specimens 
from 3.9 million years ago nnf l the 
skull and other recently discovered 
fossils that are 3 million years old. 

The team was beaded by William 
Kimbd. director of paleoanthro- 
pology at the Institute of Human 
Origins in Berkeley, California; 
Donald G Johansen, president of 
the institute, and Yoel Rat a pale- 
ontologist at Tel Aviv University. 

Commenting on the skull’s im- 
portance in an accompanying jour- 
nal article, Leslie C. Aiello, a pale- 
ontologist at University College, 
Loudon, said the skull and other 
recent findings provided “persua- 
sive support for the idea that A. 
afarensis is a single, highly dimor- 
phic spedes,” that is, one with two 
types of individuals. 

The single-species hypothesis 
had been challenged by scientists 
who studied the striking variations 
in the size of afarensis fossils and 
decided they were too pronounced 
to be included in one spedes. 

In the alternative view, larger- 
boned individuals represented a 
separate “robust" species, now ex- 
tinct, which lived at the same time 
as the .smaller spedes, represented 
by Lacy, that evolves into the 
Homo lineage, leading. eventually 
to modem humans, Homo sapiens. 

In this view, the two distinct 
lines — one leading to humans and 
the other to the australqnihednes, 
a branch that became extinct 1 mil- 
lion years ago — had already di- 
verged by 3 million years agp. 

Like many paleontologists, Mr. 
KimbeTs group thinks that primi- 
tive upright-walking hominids — 
humans and their extinct ancestors 
and relatives — did not diversify 
into discrete lineages until 
time in the half a million years after 
the 3-million-year-old skull 
After an analysis of recent fossil 
discoveries, Mr. KimbeTs group at- 
tributed the size differences to sex- 
ual dimorphism. 


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International Herald Tribune 
Friday , April 1 , 1994 
Page 6 



.JtL 


Pressing Matter in Siena: Olive Oil 


By Kate Singleton 

S IENA, Italy — “My mother, who was 
very devout, used to pray for the grace 
to collaborate mieUigemly with desti- 
ny," explains Tita Simon dli during an 
^characteristic pause in the round- the-cJocfc 
supervision of the family dive press at San 
Quirico cfOrda, due south of Sena. 

“When I married into the SimoneQi family 
rather over SO years ago. I realized that if 1 
could do something for the community while 
helping run my husband's properties I would 
be respecting my mother’s precept. The family 
has owned the dive press Tot centuries, but 
my aim is to see San Quirico recognized as the 
producer of one of Italy’s finest dive ous.” 

Simon elli, whose diminutive person con- 
tains an energy that would be surprising in 
someone banner age, is too self-effacing to 
admit that the success of the San Quirico 
press is largely due to her persistent efforts. 
But she is rightly proud of the fact that last 
year her olive oil was voted among the coun- 
try’s top 20 at the Verona Agricultural Fair. 
“It’s a question of traditional methods and 
the particular quality of the San Quirico 
dive trees," she said. “We’ve also just invest- 
ed in a new separator. So this year we should 
surpass ourselves!" 

Unlike Greece and Spain, and some parts 
of southern Italy, where the olives are al- 
lowed to ripen until they fall to the ground 
(thus producing a much fattier and more 
acid on), olives in Tuscany are stripped from 
the boughs, stifl largely by hand, as soon as 
they reach the right degree of ripeness. Now- 
adays, most small towns in the prime olive- 


growing areas have their own frantoio, or 
olive press, and will usually take a fee in oil 
for pressing other people's olives. 

The olives, with their stones, are first 
washed and cleaned, and then ground be- 
tween two huge millstones into a brown 
sludge that can be extruded from the other 
end of the press in controllable quantities. 
The pulp can thus be evenly distributed 
around the perimeter of large disks made of 
coconut rope or reed, with a central hole that 
allows them to be fitted one on top of the 
other over a central pivot. 

When pressed, the olive pulp on the load- 
ed pivot will release about 60 percent of its 
original weight in liquid. About 15 percent 
of this will be oil, which is separated from the 
water by means of centrifugal spinning. 

This is the first oil, of the finest quality: 
cold-pressed virgin olive-oil that wifi be a 
deep, slightly murky green, initially almost 
peppery to the taste, (hen gradually growing 
dearer and more distinctive in flavor. Rela- 
tively little ofl is produced from this first 
pressing, so it is fairly expensive. However, 
when compared with industrially pressed ol- 
ive oils, its value is immediately perceptible. 
The best cold-pressed virgin olive ofl recalls 
the finest chateau wine. It’s a universe in its 
own right, a food rather than a d ressing . 

“The fact that we only press local olives is 
very important, and has made us unpopular 
in the past. When the olive trees of most of 
Tuscany were frozen to death in the bad 
winters of 1985 and 1986. our press lay 
fallow for two years. We refused to bring in 
olives from Puglia, as so many did, and sell 
the product as our own. In fact we're trying 


to get a proper DOC labd recognition for all 
genuine, locally produced, cold-pressed vir- 
gin olive oils. Then consumers will be guided 
m pur chasing a product they’re still unfamil- 
iar with, even in Italy.” 

In fact, outside the prime olive regions of 
Tuscany and Umbria, not all Italians know 
what good olive oil is really like. Indeed, few 
supermarket shoppers putting a bottle of 
“Italian Olive GST in their carts realize that 
they are probably buying an inferior by- 
product For the pulp from the first pressing 
is generally sold to manufacturers catering to 
the mass market that subject this residue to a 
further two or three “extractions.*' using first 
heal and then adds. 

A LTHOUGH smaH concerns like 
the San Quirico olive press are not 
equipped to deal with consumer 
education, certain major stores in 
big dries both in Italy and elsewhere axe now 
wooing potential customers through olive oil 
tastings held in their food halls. This is the 
case of Harvey Nichols in London, for in- 
stance, which has discovered that discerning 
eaters won’t go back to lesser products once 
they’ve tried the real thing. 

So as awareness and (he demand gradual- 
ly increase, Tita Simonelli is ensuring that a 
centuxy-long tradition will continue. Her 
granddaughters are there to help, farmlla, a 
student erf architecture, has drawn the dive 
trees and the stone press that emheffigh the 
labels. And fiaria is quietly taking on some 
of the responsibilities of running the press. 

Kate Singleton lives in Italy and writes 
frequently on cultural affairs. 



IteNcwYotltaas 


Sophie Thompson and David Haig in “ Four Weddings and a Funeral ” and Kirk Douglas in “Greedy.' 


Every Day Is Summer 

Vacation 

Directed by Shusuke Kaneko. 
Japan. 

Films about the dysfunctional 
Japanese family have come to 
constitute a minor genre in the 
cinema scene. Ever since Ozu, 
the Film family falling apart has 
been a theme, but there has re- 
cently been a rash of comedies 
about rupturing households, 
“1 he Crazy Family," “The Yea 
Family,” “The Hil-and-Run 
Family” and “The Family 
Game’’ among them. Now Shu- 
suke Kaneko (who directed 
“Summer Vacation: 1999”) 
tells us about a high-level father 
who simply drops out. becomes 
a neighborhood house-helper 
and encourages his teenage 
daughter to quit school and 
come along as sidekick. Mother 
sees the breakup as opportuni- 
ty, puts on her best kimono, 
goes out to work the Akasaka 
dubs, and lets the neighbors 
gossip. In the end father’s busi- 
ness is burgeoning, daughter is 
blooming and a new family has 
blossomed — one completely 
outride of Japanese society. 
Writer-director Kaneko took 
his idea from a popular comic 
strip and has appropriately 


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made his picture in the shape of 
a manga, with two-dimensional 
characters, head-on talks to the 
camera, off-compositions and 
editing that shuffles the scenes 
right along. A lot of empty ste- 
reotypes are sent up and a lot of 
vacant sociological coudurions 
are put down as the exploding 
family finds success Japanese- 
style. ( Donald Richie, IHT) 

Greedy 

Directed by Jonathan Lyrut 
U.S. 

“Greedy" stars Kirk Douglas — 
in his worst movie since 'Tough 
Guys" and maybe his worst ever 
—as Unde Joe, a crabby scrap 
metal tycoon with roughly $20 
million in the bank and a flock 
of scavenging relatives just wait- 
ing for him to ked over. (X 
course, Joe is well aware of their 
designs, and, far years, has used 
their remorseless greed as a sure- 
fire way of manip ulating them 
for his own amusement. His lat- 
est plot hinges on the presence of 
a blatantly unregistered nurse 
named MoDy (Olivia cTAbo). 
Once they lay eyes on the shape- 
ly MoOy, the relatives —played 
by Ed Begley Jr, Colleen Camp, 
Bob Balaban and a sadly ill-used 
Phil Hartman, among others — 


are convinced that Joe plans to 
leave all las dough to her. They 
decide to make one last-ditch 
effort. If they can find Buie Dan- 
ny — the darting tyke who used 
to entertain Joe with his Jimmy 
Durante impersonation and re- 
mains the only member of the 
family Joe likes — theycculd pit 
him against Molly and keep 
Joe’s money in the family. Dan- 
ny, played cfaarmlesriy by Mi- 
chael J. Fox, has grown up to 
become an unsuccessful profes- 
sional bowler who is ready to 
call it quits — that is, if he could 
find some other way to pay the 
bills. All the ingredients are in 
place for a farcical romp around 
the themes of family and greed, 
but Jonathan Lynn (“My Cousin 
Vinoy”) takes an approach to 
comedy that is grotesquely 
broad. Fox is getting too old for 
these cutesy-pie roles, and as 
Danny’s wife, Nancy Travis is 
forced to react to situations for 
which there are no plausible hu- 
man reactions. 

(Hal Hinson, WP) 

Four Waddings and a 
Funeral 

Directed by Mike Newell 
UK. 

If ever a film resembled a wed- 


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ding cake it is “Four Weddings 
and a Funeral” a multitiered 
confection with a romantic spir- 
it and an enchantingly pretty 
veneer. Elegant, festive and 
very, very funny, this deft Eng- 
lish comedy also constitutes a 
remarkable tightrope act on the 
part of Mike Newell (“Enchant- 
ed April”), who directed, and 
Richard Curtis (“The Tall 
Guy"), the screenwriter. In a 
feat of daring gamesmanship, 
they confine their film’s central 
love story to the events de- 
scribed by the title, veering off 
only occasionally io nearby ho- 
tels or shops for wedding-relat- 
ed gambits. That conceit would 
seem strained if it didn’t prove 
so unexpectedly graceful and 
inspired. Although “Four Wed- 
dings and a Funeral" brings to 
mind other films as diverse as 
“A Wedding” (for its mishap- 
plagued party atmosphere) and 
“Peter’s Friends" (for the colle- 
giality of its English ensemble 
players), it has a light, engaging 
style that is very much its own. 
Much of the mood is set by 
Hugh Grant’s Charles, whose 
dapper good looks and bashful 
mann er make him understand- 
ably popular as a best man. 

(Janet Maslin, NYT) 


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Despite a limited budget, Lisbon is trying to live up to its designation as the 1994 Cultural 


Gnu 

Capital of Europe. 


Lisbon: On Europe’s Center Stage 


By John Rockwell 

New York Tima Service 

L ISBON — Every year since Melina 
Mercouri, as the Greek minister of 
culture, thought up the idea more 
than a decade ago, a city has been 
outfitted with the trappings of Cultural Cap- 
ital of Europe. But as earnest aficionados 
trekked about Europe from one such capital 
to the next they began to wonder how much 
of this program was truly col rural and how 
much half-baked touristic promotion. 

The answer, of course, is a little of both, 
although touristic promotion, too, can be 
more or less sophisticated. Each city seems 
first to fall victim to political infighting, a 
squabble for money and control Then some- 
one comes up with a more or less plausible, 
more or less gaseous theme. The cultural 
budget is nudged up a bit. often not enough 
to make much difference: there is some re- 
furbishment of the infrastructure, and with 
drums and trumpets the program is proudly 
inaugurated. 

The eventual success of each city’s pro- 
gram is measured partly by increased tour- 
ism, partly by press response and, most in- 
tangibly, by the lasting benefits each city 
accrues. On those criteria, this lovely, friend- 
ly Portuguese capital a little faded cm its 
hilly perch overlooking the Tagus River bay 
but still full of twisting streets, architectural 
charm and blossoming gardens, may well 
prove one of the program’s lasting successes. 

One reason is Portugal’s shaky prior histo- 
ry or arts support, a backdrop a g a ins t which 
the current festivities can shine all the 
brighter. Another is that the city falls neatly 
between being too big and too small 
By and large, major European capitals 
have done less well capitalizing on the pro- 
gram's potential than more out-of-the-way 
places. By consensus, the most successful 
programs so far have been in 1990 in Glas- 
gow and last year in Antwerp. 

Less successful have been places Hke Paris, 

where special events were ovawhelmed by the 
bicentennial celebration of the French Revo- 
lution along with that city’s normal cultural 
barrage, and Madrid in 1992, where scatter- 
shot organization and competition from Se- 
ville (Expo '92.) and Barcelona (the Summer 
Olympics) dimmed the capital’s luster. 

For a while, it looked as if the sort of 
political conflict that frustrated Madrid 
might undo Lisbon as well Here, a split 
between the right in the national government 
and a Socialist-Communist ooahtion at the 
municipal level delayed the formation of a 
compromise directorate. 

But once the compromise was finally struck 
two years ago, all sides report, dungs proceed- 
ed smoothly. To be sure, the compromise 
itself might seem hopelessly politicized. A 
moderate Socialist, Vitor Constancio, was 
chosen as chairman. Beneath him are eight 
(Erectors, carefully apportioned as to party. 

Still, said Rubra de Carvalho, who is in 
charge of entertainment and popular music 
and the sole Communist on the directorate, 
all the directors bring some actual expertise 
to their bailiwicks. And, he said, the commis- 
sion has been free of the mudslingjng that 
often dogs simil ar American arts groups. 

The reason, he said, was a sense of com- 





wtri- - k II BBH 

:> .. ■' 1 rtti iririh* /s ■ 


Tagus ftivar • j 

The New Yort. Times 


mimaH ty fostered by the across-the-board 
censorship under the conservative dictator- 
ship overthrown in 1974. “Before then, there 
was a general repression erf all culture,” de 
Carvalho explained. “The fact that every- 
body was persecuted made for some kind of 
brotherhood. Nobody thought it odd that 
our opening ceremony on reb. 26 should 
have been a traditional program with Sir 
Georg Solti and the London Symphony fol- 
lowed by keeping all the bars and nightclubs 
in town open all night.” 

Like most Cultural Capitals, Lisbon has 
sought to use its moment in the sun — it will 
have another moment in. lour years, as the site 
of Expo *98 — to win additional national and 
European Comnumity money for renovations 
and repairs. One historic district has been 
systematically gussied up (another was largely 
. destroyed in a fire in 1988); the 3,000-seat 
Coliseum, the ate of most of the city's orches- 
tral programs, has been rebuilt, and several 
museums have had their faces lifted. 

Portugal remains Western Europe’s poor- 
est country, however, and its Cultural Capi- 
tal budget reflects that. Madrid had a badge*' 
of $60 nrifficm; Antwerp had $36 million, not 
counting ample in-kind, nonmonetary con- 
tributions. Lisbon started off with a project- 
ed $55 million, which was quickly whittled to 


■ Let’s say the list started with 
“O. K.” Then it expanded to indude 
Coca-Cola, blue jeans, rock music and 
rampant, waddling obesity, depending on 
who’s counting those American 
contributions to world popular culture. 
Now there’s another victory, if that’s 
the right word: casual shirts, probably 
without a jacket and definitely 
without a tie, are acceptable summertime 
dress at more and more of the Old 
Continent's toniest restaurants. Now is 
dial good news, or what! 


CM SSI 919 


$40 million, of which 515 million is in-kind, 
with more cuts just a few months ago that 
knocked oat one art exhibition and one 
opera production. 

Still, Constancio said, the city has this 
year been able to muster 40 percent more 
cultural offerings than usual. But thee. Por- 
tugal has a secret weapon. That weapon is 
the Calouste Gulbenltian Foundation, which 
since its inception in 1956. after the death of 
its Armenian-bom, London-based; oil-rich 
benefactor, has played an enormous role in 
Portugal's cultural ufe. 

The Gulb enltian Fo undatio n will disburse 
$100 milli on this year, 60 percent of it to 
cultural projects, including its own orches- 
tra, chorus and ballet company. That com- 
pares with a $165 millio n national budget for 
culture. (By further comparison, however, 
the Ponqridou Center in Paris limps by on a 
$90 million annual budget all its own.) 

Naturally, the foundation has contributed 
generously to the Cultural Capital programs. 
They have been loosely organized around the 
themes of Portugal's, and hence Europe's, 
connections with the rest of the world, in 
particular with Portugal’s former colonies, 
and of Lisbon itself a&a cultural attraction. 

To judge from early events and a glance at 
the rest of the year’s calendar, some real 
ima ginati on and sophistication have gone 
into their malting. And although it’s way too 
early to determine how successful the cele- 
bration will be in building local audiences 
and attracting tourists, Constancio said ho- 
tel reservations so far were up 30 percent 
over last year. 

T HE opening weeks offered a much- 
admired exhibition of the sculpture 
of Angola, long ruled by Portugal 
which the Financial Times of Lon- 
don called “the most spectacular gathering 
of the heritage from this part of Africa as- 
sembled.” The big art exhibition for the year, 
starting in May, will be ajuxtaposition of the 
paintings of Hieronymus Bosch — “The 
Temptation of SL Anthony” being the most 
famous picture permanently on display here 
— with Surrealism. 

In the performing arts, there has been a 
nicely sung, handsome new production of 
Bellini’s “I Capuleti e i Montecchi” in the 
jewel-like Teatro National de S3o Carlos; 
“Alice” by Robert Wilson and Tom Waits 
from the Thalia Theater of Hamburg; a 
newly commissioned riot of controlled 
punk-rock theatrics called “M. T. M.” — the 
initials stand for anything you hke — by the 
Barcelona troupe La Fura dels Bails, and a 
modem-dance piece called “Amar Amalia" 
by the Ballet Gulbenltian. 

A pity this last, by the company’s princi- 
pal choreographer, Vasco WeUenkamp, 
seemed so derivative In its debts to modem 
dancers hither and yon. For the idea was a 
nice one: to render homage to Amalia Rodri- 
gues, Portugal’s most revered exponent of ( 
fado, the mournful and impassioned nation- 
al popular song still propagated all over 
town m dubs more or less touristic. 

De Carvalho is overseeing another fado- 
rdated venture that is likely to prove benefi- 
aal for years to come; a fado project that 
involves the scholarly codification and re- 
cording of what remains of the vast fado 
heritage. 


ACROSS 

i Shakes up 

5 Moonshine-to- 
be 

9 Architectural 
afterthought 
u Like crazy 
ia Until 

16 Hang (over) 

17 Patrick's 
■Ghost’ co-star 

16 Knock out 
16 Lika interstates 
20 Practical joker's 
buy 


23 Kind of fin 

24 Sapporo sash 

25 Fake jewelry 

27 Marked a ballot 

29 Charming 

33 Publicize 

34 Banana oil, e.g. 

36 Major affiliation 

37 Practical joker's 
buy 

41 Centers of 
activity 

42 Bucks 

43 Impress 
mightily 


Solution to Puzzle of March 31 


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deis ass n as aan 
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heqs OOQ saa 
D0D Q00 

Hass sasa asga 
□□□HEJOHanaaagga 
bobs Bcmaananaa 
pjQSD Dssi3 asaas 
gflQfl ssaa E1BBB 


44 Once around 
the sun 

45 WW-o'-the-wisp 
site 

46 Special Interest 
grps- 

48 Pfthecotogist 's 
study 

so Lhasa 

(terrier type) 

si Practical joker's 
buy 

so See 6-Down 

59 Brazen 

60 Bring on board 

61 Sound 

62 Kaput 

63 Similar 

64 Smile upon 

65 Cleaning 
solutions 

ee Work at a bar 


1 Figurine 
material 

2 Raymond. 

originator of 
‘Rash Gordon’ 

3 Easy victory 

4 Clown’s props 

5 Least lucid 

6 With 58- Across, 
certain victims 

T Stagger 


8 “Dukes of 
Hazzard' boss 

9 Robin Williams 
forte 

10 Involve with, 
unwillingly 

11 Seaman- 
novelist who 
served on the 
Pilgrim 

12 Abbr. on a 
phone 

13 Nancy Drew's 
boyfriend 

21 'Shane' or 
’Stagecoach' 

22 How some 
pkgs. come 

» Nettie 

26 Resort Island off 
Venezuela 

27 TV tube material 

28 Consequently 

30 Artist Grant 
Wood. e.g. 

31 Steamship 
staffs 

32 Rochester's 
beloved 

33 Wan 

35 What the hands 
may show 

38 Sharon and 
Shamir 

39 Charleston 

ladies 


40 'Will Rogers 
Follies* prop 
45 Turkish topper 

47 “Big dealt* 

48 Change at 

Chihuahua 


50 Jibe 

51 Music category 

52 Junction point 

53 Whom a 
wannabe wants 
to be 


M The 

Midshipmen 
56 Water barrier 

56 Green land 

57 Split apart 
seWisk rival 


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Puotelqr Stsntey Nmoim 


© New York Times Edited by Will Shorlz 


.(>' 























International Herald Tribune I 
Friday, April l, 1994 
Page U 
'4. 
7 


Cutting Flight Costs: Don’t Always Go to Nearest Airport 


By Roger CoIIis 

Immuuitmai Herald Tribune 


T RAVEL decisions are marfr on a 
Shiitmg equation of cost, time, con- 
venience and comfort — plus the 
overriding criterion of earning and 
seeming frequent-flier awards! 

But wben cost counts most, seasoned trav- 
els flying from Europe to Asia or America 
know that the cheapest distance between two 
points is usually via a hub in a neighboring 
country. 6 

“Cross-border hubbing" is the way to ex- 
ploit the huge differences between fares in 
weak and strong currencies, plus the fact 
that most airlines offer then- best deals in 
someone else’s backyard. Lufthansa and 
SAS fight for cross-border traffic over 
Frankfurt and Copenhagen; Lufthansa and 
Swissair over Zurich and Frankfurt; Air 
France and British Airways over London, 
Manchester and P&ris, and BA and KLM on 
London and Amsterdam. 

Cross-border hubbing often combines 
cheaper fares with convenience. Unless you 


start from a major hub, you have to change 
planes somewhere. So why not in a neighbor- 
ing country? 

Ask somebody who lives in Norwich how 
to get to New York and the chances are you 
will be advised to avoid Heathrow and take a 
flight via Sduphol, arriving at JFK in early 
afternoon. 

Traveling from Bristol to New York your 

Tie Frtfieaf Tranter 

best bet is through Dublin; from Zurich to 
Kinshasa 1 would connect in Brussels while 
from Nice to Delhi 1 would choose Rome. 

This strategy i 
thecostofnonst. 
departure where 

It sometimes pays to pay full fare, espe- 
cially when you are able to use the flexibility 
— not only by being able to switch flights 
and earners, change the routing once your 
journey has commenced and make unlimited 
stopovers, and under IATA roles travel up to 
25 percent more miles between two points 
free, or for a small airehargc. 

A full-fare ticket can also qualify you for 



half-price partner fares, two-for-one offers, 
upgrades and higher mileage credits. 

Some airlines offer a free stopover to long- 
haul passengers paying the full first or busi- 
ness-class fare who travel through their main 
hubs. 

Flying first or business class with Iberia 
earns you its Madrid Amigo package: a 
night in a five-star hotel, limo transfers and 
dinner at a flamenco show. The condition is 
that you must be connecting with Iberia to or 
from an international flight. 

Air France has a similar offer to tempt 
people traveling from Mexico City to Ma- 
drid to stop over in Paris. 

The SAS “executive stopover" package in 
Copenhagen and Stockholm is free to full- 
fare business-class people on intercontinen- 
tal flights with onward connections out of 
Scandinavia. 

Stopovers are not usually permitted on a 
consolidator ticket But you can sometimes 
turn a connection into a stopover under the 
24-hour rule. 

If you can arrange to arrive on a late flight 
so that there is no onward flight that day, 
you can stay the whole of the next day. 


provided you leave within 24 hours of arriv- 
al. Airlines will normally give you a meal for 
connections of more than two to three hours. 
And you may strike it lucky with a free hold 
room. 

London is the moat expensive of all major 

European capitals in which to buy a full- 
fare, round-trip, business-class ticket to New 
York. This will cost you around 53,000, 
compared with 52,780 from Paris; S 2,400 
from Frankfurt, and 51,400 from Athens. 

On the other band, a full-fare business- 
class round-trip to Tokyo is most expensive 
in Zurich: $5 J70. compared with 54,732 in 
London; S4,149 in Madrid, and 53,926 in 
Rome. 

The cross-border strategy should be to 
buy your long-haul round-trip in the local 
currency of your chosen hub, then buy a 
separate round-trip ticket to get you there. 
(This is to avoid paying the “higher interme- 
diate" fare according to IATA rules. Al- 
though by the same rules you may be able to 
save money by making two separate round- 
trips on one ticket: a device known as “com- 
bined ticketing.") 

Lufthansa quotes Lon don -Los Angeles 


business-class round-trip via Frankfurt for 
£2,835 (about 54,250). saving £419 on the 
nonstop fare. 

Traveling business class London-New 
York via Dublin, for example, will save you 
£255 on a round-trip; London-Buenos Aires 
via Madrid will save you £560 on the full 
nonstop round-trip of £3,376. 

Buying a consolidator fare can save you 
even more. A consolidator ticket is normally 
valid for a year and flexible, except that you 
can't change to another carrier. But flying 
London-Buenos Aires business class (via 
Madrid) with Iberia will cost only £2^296, 
saving £1,080 on the published nonstop fare. 
Flying via Rome with Alitalia could save you 
about £1 300 (if you can live with only three 
flights a week between Rome and Buenos 
Aires.) 

W AGON LIT quotes 21,130 
francs (about 53,700) for a 
round-trip business-class ticket 
Paris-Singapore with Lufthansa 
via Frankfurt against a published fare of 
29,960 francs. And Paris- Bangkok for 17,740 
francs against 25 , 530 . 

They can also sdl you a round-trip busi- 


ness-class London-New York via Amster- 
dam on KLM or Northwest for about £1 300 
against £2,164 for the published fare. 

Travelers based in Germany can save about 
40 percent on round-trip business-class fares 
to destinations in Asia and North America by 
flying on SAS through Copenhagen. 

You can buy a consolidator from seven 
major German airports to New York 
2.700 Deutsche marks (about 51,625).' 
against 4,322 marks for a full-fare nonstop 
flight); 3,450 marks to Seattle (against 6,412 
marks); 3,750 marks to Bangkok ( 

6,120 marks), and 4,800 marks to 
Kong (against 7,1 10 marks). 

Goman business travelers can buy a 
Frankfurt-New York round-trip (Concorde 
to and from Paris) with Air France for 7,432 
marks (instead of 9,170, the full first-class 
fare). 

But perhaps the most spectacular of all 
cross-border consolidation deals is traveling 
Concorde to New York wi th Air France. The 
round-trip from London (via Paris) costs 
£3,558, compared with British Airways Con- 
corde from London at £5,180. And Air 
France will pick up the tab for a hotel room 
on the way back. 


long 




TIE UTS f T flE 


AUSTRIA 


Vienna 

Albertina, tef: (1) 53-48-30. open 
dally. Continuing/To May 23: "Ko- 
koshka: Das Frahwerk. " 200 of the 
Austrian painter's early drawings and 
water colors created from 1898 to 
191 7. 

Kunsttorum der Bank Austria, tel: 
(222 ) 531-24, open daily. Continu- 
ing /To June 5: “Chagall bis Picasso: 
Meisterwerke aus dem Guggenheim 
Museum New York." 70 major paint- 
ings and sculptures representing the 
various artistic tendencies of the 20th 
century: Cubism with works by Pi- 
casso and Braque, Expressionism 
represented by Kandinsky and 
Nolde, Constructivism In the paint- 
ings of Mondrian and Klee, and later 
artists such as Dubuffet and Bacon. 


BELGIUM 


Brussels 

La Mormaie, tel: (2) 218-121 1 . Brit- 
ten's “Peier Grimes." Directed by 
Winy Decker, conducted by Antonio 
Pappano, with William Cochran, 
Gregory Yurisich and Xenia Konsek. 
April is (premiere), 22, 24, 27 and 
30. 

M usees Royaux d'Art et d'Hfstolre, 
tel: (2) 741-7202, dosed Mondays. 
To April 24: “Charles Quint: Tapis- 
series et Armures des Collections 
Royales d'Espagne." Features tapes- 
tries from the Brussels manufactures 
in the 16th century, as well as weap- 
ons and armor that belonged to 
Charles V of the Roman Holy Empire 
and the Cathode Kings. 

BRITAHI - - 

Cambridge 

The Fftzwillram Museum, tel: (223) 
332-900, closed Mondays. To April 
10: "Drawings by Sculptors." Focus- 
es on the role of drawing in the sculp- 


tor's art from the 16th to the 20th 
centuries, and indudes drawings and 
sculptures by Rubens. Matisse and 
Hepworth. 

Glyndeboume 

1994 Festival. April 6: General book- 
ing by post opens tor the summer 
festival featuring Mozart's "Le Nozze 
cH Figaro" and "Don Giovanni," 
Tchaikovsky's "Eugene Onegin," 
Britten's "Peter Grimes" and Stravin- 
sky's "The Rake's Progress," for 15 
performances between May 28 and 
July 15. 

London 

jlteh National Opera, tel: (71) 
3161. Tchaikovsky's "Eugene 
Onegin." Restaged by Julia Holland- 
er, conducted by Alexander Polian- 
fchko, with Peter Coleman- Wright. 
Rosa Manrtion and Bonaventura Bol- 
tons. April 7, 9, 14.16. 19,22, 27 and 
30. 

Tate Gallery, tel: (71) 887-8000, 
open daily. Continuing Ao May 8: 

' ‘Picasso: Sculptor/ Painter." The ex- 
hibition features 166 sculptures, 
paintings, drawings and ceramics, 
focusing on the relationship between 
Picasso's sculpture and painting 
from the earty works of the Cubist 
period to the monumental pieces of 
the 1950s and 1960s. 

Manchester 

The Whitworth Art Gallery, tel: ( 61 ) 
273-4865, closed Sundays. To June 
18; "Arabesques: Frencli Hand- 
Printed Wallpapers, 1770-1800." 
Features more than 50 papers de- 
pleting nature, mythology and erotic 
subjects. 

CANADA . , 

Mo ntreal 

Mu see d'Art Contemporaln, tel: 
(514) 847-6226. Continuing/To 
April 24: "Robert Doisneau: A Retro- 
spective." A tribute to the French 
photographer, including 250 photo- 


graphs taken between 1929 and 
1992. 

CZECH REPUBLIC "" 

Prague 

Prague Castle Riding School, tel: 
(2) 33-37-32-32. To May 23: "A 
Past Future. Czech Modernist Art 
1890-1918." The display focuses on 
the evolution of Czech art from the 
turn of the century to Cubism. Featur- 
ing, among others. Bflek. Kafka. 
Spaniel and Gutfreund. 

DENMARK ~ 

Copenhagen 

Det KongetigeTeater, tel: 33-14-10- 
02. Mozart's "Cosi Fan Tutte." Con- 
ducted by Andrew Greenwood, with 
Rand) Stone, Jorgen Ole Borch and 
Gert Henning-Jensen. April 12, 15 
and 19. 

FRANCE 

Nantes 

MusOe des Beaux-Arts de Nantes, 
tel: 40-41-65-65. closed Tuesdays. 
To April 25: ‘Tony Cragg: Desslns." 
Recent drawings by the British sculp- 
tor. The exhibition will travel to Saar- 
brocken. Germany and St Gall, Swit- 
zerland. 

Paris 

Centre National de la Photogra- 
phie, tel: 53.76.12.32, closed Tues- 
days. To May 9: "Brassat: Du Surrea- 
lisms a I'Art Informal. " 160 
photographs dating from the 1930s 
to the 1950s, including portraits of 
artist friends such as Picasso, Ma- 
tisse and Michaux, and photographs 
of Paris by day and by night. 

Grand Palais, tel: 44-13-17-30, 
closed Tuesdays. Continuing/To 
June 13: "Le Soleil et I'Etolle du 
Nord: La France et la Suede au 18e 
Siecle." Paintings, sculptures, art ob- 
jects and architectural designs show- 


ing cultural exchanges between 
France and Sweden under the aegis 
ot King Gustavos HI in his efforts to 
emulate the Court of Versailles. 
Musde d'Art Modeme de la Villa de 
Paris, tel: 47-23-61-27, closed Mon- 
days. To July 17: “La Beaute Exacts: 
De van Gogh a Mondrian." 250 
works, including 150 paintings, by 12 
Dutch artists inducing Pyke Koch 
and Charley Toroop, In the first half of 
the 20th century. Also, to June 12: 
"Du Concept a I 'image." Works by 
ten Dutch artists since 1970, includ- 
ing Jan Dibbets, Ger van Elk, Niek 
Kemps and Mark Manders. 
Saint-Germaln-en-Laye 
Mus6e des Antiquitts National as, 
tel: (1) 34-51-53-65, closed Tues- 
days. To July 18: "Verclngetorix et 
Alesla." Artifacts from the Gauls peri- 
od. including weapons, Jewels and 
vases. The exhibition also indudes a 
model ot Alesia where Verclngetorix 
was besieged and defeated by Cae- 
sar's troops, as well as 19th-century 
paintings celebrating the Arvernl 
chieftain. 

GERMANY 

Berlin 

Staatsoper Unter den Linden, tel: 
(30) 203-544-94. Cimarosa's "(I 
Matrimonio Segreto." Directed by 
Henning Brocknaus, conducted by 
Asher Fish, with Gerd Won. Efrat 
Ben-Nun and Laura Aikin. April 6, 7, 
14, 15 and 24. 

Cologne 

Operder Stadt KOIn, tel: (2211 221- 
8221. Strauss's "Ariadne auf Nax- 
os." The Jean -Pierre Ponneile's pro- 
duction, conducted by John Flore 
with Alessandra Marc, Delores 
Ziegler and Peter Svensson. April 20. 

Munich 

Bayerisches National Museum, tel: 
(89) 211-24-1, closed Mondays. To 
May 29: "Silber und Gold: Augs- 


burger GoJdschmiedekunsi for Die 
Hole Europas." Silver and gold table- 
ware created in Augsburg tor the Eu- 
ropean courts in the 17th and 18th 
centuries. 

ISRAEL "" 

Jerusalem 

The Israel Museum, tel: (2 ) 706- 
ait, open daily. To Aug. 29: "Back 
to the Shtetl: An-Sky and the Jewish 
Ethnographic Expedition 1912- 
1914." Lite In the pale of settlemem 
before World War I, centering on ob- 
jects collected by the ethnographic 
expedition and kept in the State Eth- 
nographic Museum in St. Petersburg. 

ITALY 

Prato 

Centro per i'Arte Content poranea 
Luigi Peed, tel: (574) 570-620, 
dosed Tuesdays. To May 16: "Fel- 
lini: I Costumi e le Mode." Features 
costumes from Fellini's films, as weH 
as a series of other designers's cre- 
ations showing Fellini's influence. 
Rome 

Palazzo Ducale, tel: (41) 522-49- 
51. daily. Continuing/To April 30: 
“Arte lsJam>ca In Italia" A selection 
of objects borrowed from major Ital- 
ian collections which outline the de- 
velopment of Islamic art throughout 
the centuries. It indudes bronzes, sil- 
ver and gold objects, crystals and 
carpels. 

JAPAN 

Osaka 

Navlo Museum, tel: (6) 316-1343, 
open daily. To April 13: “Modigliani et 
I'Ecote de Paris.” Features 10 dl 
paintings and sketches by Modigliani 
and 65 pieces by some of the foreign 
artists who were centered in Pans, 
such as Kisllng and Soutine. 

34th Osaka International Festival, 
tel: (6) 231 -6985. April 5 to 22: Fea- 


MEVOR HERESIES, 
MAJOR DEPARTURES: 

A China Mission Boyhood 

By John Espey. 349 pages. $25. 
University of California Press. 

Reviewed by 
Jonathan Yardley 

J OHN ESPEY was born in 
Shang hai in 1913, the second 
rhii ri of Presbyterian missionaries, 
and re main ed there with the excep- 
tion of a couple of American fur- 
loughs until the summer of 1930. 

He ended up in California, first as a 

college student at Occidental and 
eventually as a professor of English 
at UCLA, but his years in China 
remained so central to his sense of 
Viimorff that much of his long writ- 
ing career has been devoted to rem- 
iniscences of them. The first of 
these were published nearly balf^a 
century ago as “Minor Heresies ; 
others followed in “Tales Out of 
School” and “The Other City." 

These books struck a receptive 
chord among many readers: in 
some cases because the readers 
themselves had been the children of 
missionaries, in some because read- 
ers recognized that Espey was writ- 
ing about a world at once uniquely 
peculiar and forever vanished, but 
surely in all cases because the 
charm and self-mockery of Espe/s 
recollections are simply irresstiWe. 
Thus it is an occasion for celebra- 
tion that the University of Califor- 
nia Press has collected what Espey 
describes on the copyright page as 


WHAT THEY'RE READING 


• Mare Abrahams, editor of the 
Journal of Irreprodudble Results, 
is reading “Body Snatching: The 
Robbing of Graves for the Education 
of Physicians in Early Nineteenth 
Century America ” by S uzann e M- 
Shultz and *The Social History of 
the Machine Gun ” by John Eflis. 

“One of our readers recommend- 
ed them. I «hink I have a lot to 
learn, so Fm going to study them 
very carefully.'’ 

(Barry James, IHT) 



“all tJae chapters I wish 10 preserve” 
from these three memoirs. 

“Minor Heresies, Major Depar- 
tures” is no scholarly study, but that 
in no way dimimsbes its value either 
as a contribution to the history of 
Chinese- American relations or, of 
greater weight, as a work of litera- 
ture. It was Espey* s a c c ide n ta l good 
fortune to be in China at a time 
when the old order was crumbling 
and the new one was musding in. 
Though be was too young to have 
more than a wide-eyed child’s inter- 
est in or understanding of the rise of 
Gnang Kai-shek and his armed 
forces, he did catch a glimpse of this 
“young Cantonese general with am- 
bitions and he provides, in retro- 
spect, a wry account of how Ms 
rebellion cangbt the complacent in- 
ternational community unawares; 

“Wben I returned to Shanghai in 
December 1926 to spend the Christ- 
mas holidays with my family, I had 
no suspicion that I should not be 


SUITE 


1 bad; to [boarding school at] 
ig. Although there was a great 
deal of buzzing around about the 
civil war going rat between the 
forces of Qnang Kai-shek, who had 
marched up from Canton the pre- 
ceding summer, and the forces of the 
Peking government and the north- 
ern warlords, to anyone born and 
raised in China it was absurd to take 
all this too seriously. Certainly one 
would not expect it to interfere seri- 
ously with anything a foreigner 
might wish to do. Moreover, I had 
myself set eyes on Qiiang Kai-shek 
and his imme diate suite when they 
were in Kufing during the autumn, 
and had found him, for the few 
momen ts I had been allowed to gaze 
at him, a very mild-mannered and 
reasonable-looking man." 

That passage is quoted not for 
the edification of Zoologists, for 
whom Espey most assuredly is not 
writing, but as an example of two 
distinctive qualities of this quite 


remarkable book. The first, which 
is self-evident, is the elegance of 
Espey’s stately, self-confident 
prose, beneath the lovely surface of 
which runs a steady stream of self- 
awareness and self-mockery. The 
second is the delicate balance that 
Espey strikes — and maintain?? 
throughout — between the voice of 
the mature memoirist and the view- 
point of the boy whom be is recall- 
ing. This balance is utterly essential 
to the successful childhood mem- 
oir, yet striking it is so difficult that 
only the rarest writer achieves it; 
Espey is that writer. 

In Ms brief introduction Espey 
tefls us that he was surprised, when 
the first of these essays appeared in 
1945, that his father look an almost 
proprietary pride in them; he had 
feared that, because “1 bad called 
into question the whole intent of 
foreign missions,” Ms father would 
take offense. What he did not per- 
ceive then — what be may not rally 
perceive even now — is that no 
parent could hope for a more under- 
standing and loving portrait than 
that painted by Espey of his father 
and mother. Again, it is Ms capacity 


to portray his parents as he saw 
them then that first strikes the read- 
er; but what gives those portraits 
such depth is that we can detect in 
the background the more subtle and 
adult understanding that Espey in 
time achieved and that he so deftly 
conveys to the reader. 

As a boy in S hanghai, Espey in- 
habited three worlds: the mission, 
the city and the Shanghai American 
School, where most of Ms education 
took place. He writes about all with 
respect and affection, but it was 
during his relatively infrequent for- 
ays into the city that be felt most 
connected to the “more fluid 
sphere" that is life itself. He seems to 
have sensed from early on that this 
would be the sphere for Mm, even if 
his pan of il was to be the relatively 
cloistered world of the university, 
and that he would have to leave 
China to discover and achieve his 
destiny. But tTima as much as any-* 
thing else is what made him, as he so 
vividly and memorably attests in 
this genuinely sin gular book. 

Jonathan Yardley is on the staff of 
The Washington Post 


ruscott 
k that the dia- 
vould have °° 

juth overbid 

unonds, using 
arises to Key- 
Vest leads his 

East takes two 

ae- . 

ed in a regional 
awaii in Janu- 
g point of the 



nth the ten. 
ut another 

in dummy's 
y when an 

available- 


Unaware of this remarkable de- 
fense, South took the dub ace, 
crossed to the spade king and 
ruffed a dub. He then raffed a 
spade high, drew trumpsr and 
claimed his slam. He explained that 
he would take a heart finesse to 
dispose of his spade loser, and was 
astonished to be asked to sign a 
result a slip that showed that he 
had gone down one. To prove it. 
East had to take Ms cards out of the 
board and reveal that he really did 
hold the queen. The defenders did 
not insist on a two-trick defeat, 
Because West was due to show out 
on the heart lead and Sooth would 
not then finesse. 

North examined the layout and 
started screaming at his partner. 
How could he have gone down? 
Why hadn't he raffed two spades in 
the dummy and made the slam? 
East added fuel to the fire by point- 
ing out that South had simply tak- 


en a marked finesse, and North 
went on screaming. 


NORTH 

4K 

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♦ A 9 6 4 

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bidding: 

South 

West 

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44 

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4 NX 

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West led the bean five 



38 Million Travelers In 26 Cities 
Turn To WHERE Magazine 
For Directions & Advice 



[>MAG AZIUES«| 


UTERNATICINAl 


ESSENTIAL READING FOR VISITORS SINCE 1936 

26-27 Market Place, London win 7AL England 
Telephone: 071-436 5553 Fax:071-436 4507 

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Telephone: (361) 137 8758 Fax:(361) 118 8316 

Thu English-language magazine for affluent tourists 



‘Le Phtnomine de VExtase ” (1932) by Brassat in a Paris show. 


lures orchestral concerts under Ervin 
Lukacs, Mstislav Rostropovich and 
Ken TakaseW, chamber music and a 
Japanese traditional performance of 
Noh plays. 

Tokyo 

Museum of Art, tel: (045) 
‘31, closed Tuesdays. To April 
10: "National Gallery of Scotland 
Collection." The 80 works on display 
include 66 European oils from the 
16th century to the present and 14 
works by Scottish painters. 

NETHERLANDS 

Amsterdam 

Van Gogh Museum, tel: (20) 570- 
5200. open daily. Continuing/To 
May 29: "Pierre Puvis de Cha- 
vannes." More than 150 portraits. 
stiU Iffes. landscapes and drawings by 
the French painter (1824-1898). 
known lor his Arcadian themes and 
his murals on the Sorbonne, Panthe- 
on and city hall walls in Paris. 

SINGAPORE ~ 

Empress Place Museum, tel: 336- 
73-33. open daily. Continuing /To 
July 1994: "War and Ritual: Trea- 
sures ot the Warring States." An ex- 
hibition ot Chinese bronze culture 
from the Warring States period (475- 
221 B. C.). 


SPAIN 


Madrid 

Teatro de la Zarzuela, tel: 429- 
8225. Verdi’s "Un Balk) in Mas- 
chera." Directed by Guy Jooslen, 
conducted by Louis A Garcia Na- 
varro, with Sven Use, Louis Lima and 
Juan Pons. April 18. 21. 23, 26 and 
28. 

Valencia 

IV AM Centre Julio Gonzalez, tel: 
(6) 386-3000, closed Mondays. To 
April 24: "Raoul Hausmann. 250 
works by the Austrian-born artist 
( 1 886-1 971 ), a representative figure 
of Berlin Dadaism around 1918. The 
exhibition will travel to Berlin. 

SWITZERLAND 

Basel 

Anti kentn useu m Basel, tel: (61) 
271 -2202. closed Mondays. To June 
26: "Pompeji Wieder Entdeckt." 
Wall-pali ntlngs, sculptures, jewelry 
and pottery buried al Pompeii after 
the eruption of ML Vesuvius In A D. 
79, and recently excavated. 

Lugano 

Museo Can ton ale d’Arte, tel: (91) 
22-93-56, dosed Mondays. To June 
5: "L’Arl Contemporaln et I'Activite 
de Collectiormer." A selection of 80 
works and Installations by Swiss and 


foreign painters since 1970, indue — 
ing creations by Baselitz, Alighiero m 
B oetti, LeWitt and Nauman. Mj 

UNITED STATES 

New York 

Metropolitan Museum of Art 
(212) 570-3951. dosed Mondays! 

To April 24: "The Golden Age c| 
Danish Painting." 125 It 
marine views, cityscapes, por 
and genre scenes by Danish painter! 
between 1780 and 1850. Also, t* 
April 24: "Caspar David Friedrich tW 
Ferdinand Hodler: I9th-Centur 
Paintings and Drawings from the Ost 
kar Reinhart Foundation, Wintei| 
lhur." 100 German and Swiss pa)rr| 
Ings and works on paper, including 
images ol mythological fantasy m 
Arnold Bocklin, landscapes b 
Hodler, and Italian scenes by Ca 
BJechen. |i 

Whitney Museum of American Aril 
tel: (212) 570-3633, closed Mori 
days and Tuesdays. To St" 

"Ideas and Objects; Selected 
ings and Sculptures from the ~ 
nent Collection." 52 drawings and 1 j 
sculptures exploring the cocriL 
tary relationship between the two mi 
drum. The exhibition includes wort: 
by John Newman, Sol LeWitt 
Louise Nevetson. 


n & 


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The second Washington & World Business conference will take 
place in Washington. D.G.. on April 21-22, 1994. 

The conference format of plenary sessions and small working 
groups offers you a unique opportunity For in-depth discussion 
with a distinguished group of speakers including: 

Warren M. Christopher 

U.S. SECRETARY OF STATE 

Ranald H. Brown 

U.S. SECRETARY OF COMMERCE 

Robert D. Hormais 

VICE CHAIRMAN. GOLDMAN SACHS INTERNATIONAL 

Robert E. Rubin 

ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT FOR ECONOMIC POLICY 

H. OrmoRuding 

VICE CHAIRMAN, CITICORP/CITIBANK 

Lawrence H. Summers 

U.S. UNDER SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY FOR 
INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS 

Ambassador Rufus Yens . 2 

DEPUTY U.S. TRADE REPRESENTATIVE 

For further inFormau'on, please contact: Jane Benney. International 
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I 


. “ Page 8 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 1, 1994 


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': ' ?; <A »,»' '.K'lM. 



O N 
1993 

Wold Index 


F M O 

1984 1993 


The Mas tracks U.S. dotar valuta of stocks h Tokyo, Now York, London, and . 
Arsmflm. Australia, Austria, Bolgiuni, Brad, Cmada, Ctila, Donmfc, Finland, 
Franco, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Ntaifco, Nattwlands, Now ZaeSand, Norway, 
Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Swfaa rto nd and Vonanulo. For Tokyo, Now York and 
London, tho index la composed olthe 20 top Issues In tarms of market capitaMzation. 
otherwise the ten top stocks an tracked. 


Industrial Sectors 


The Pm. % 

84PJL doM ctanoa 


7llO PM 
•4PJL don 


Energy 106.08 106.41 -031 CapM Gooch 109.73 ipg^s - 0.11 

UWBw 121.73 12154 -066 Bwllrtrth 119,07 119.68 -051 

Ftonce 112.94 114.58 -1.43 OanwmarGoodi 35.98 96.13 -0.16 

Santas 116-81 117.41 - 0.51 Mscafluous 12 SJ 2 12474 -dUB 

For mom Momutfon about the fodax, a booklet Is avaiiabte free of charge. 

Witte to Trib Index, 181 Avenue ChariesdeGaAe, 82521 NeuBy Codex, France. 

Okitemational Herald Tribuw 


The Bear 

Keeps 

Dancing 

Most Investors 
Stay on Sidelines 

By Lawrence Malkin 

Int ernational Herald Tribune 

NEW YORK —The Beal Wall 
Street sell-off persisted Thursday, 
slowed only by collars on comput- 
erized trading and the voices of a 
few big securities houses insisting 
they could see the bottom soon. 

But most buyers remained skepti- 
cal, staying off the market’s roller- 
coaster, and a late rally by blue chips 
allowed the Dow Jones industrial 
average to post a mild gain, al- 
though most indexes were lower. 
The Dow dosed at 3,63556, up 921 
points from Wednesday when it had 
plummeted 7127 points. 

Bonds and stocks both had ral- 
lies early in the day that lata- faded. 
A Chicago-arca purchasing manag- 
ers report showing a 10 percent 
gain in industrial activity sparked 
inflation fears and helped push up 
yields cm 30-year Treasury bones 
as high as 7.19 percent 

That sent stock markets into a 
taflspin. Hie Dow Janes industrial 
average plummeted 63 points, which 
put a halt u> the program trading of 
the big institutional houses, whose 
fears of higher interest rates in a 
recovering U.S. economy are caus- 
ing the sell-off. Hie Dow climbed 
bade and the bond yield di pped 
back to dose at 7.09 percent. 

But the broad stock market was 
weak. The Nasdaq over-the- 
counter index fell 1.45 points to 
dose at 743.46 and Ihe American 
Stock Exchange index was off 2.43 
pointsat443.il. 

Volume remained heavy on the 
Big Board, totaling 40424 milli on 
shares, up from 390.06 million on 
Wednesday. 

“It’s not just the selling, it’s that 
people are just sitting on the side- 
lines and not buying," said Laszlo 
Birymi, whose firm specializes in 
tracking program trading and other 
computerized market movements. 
He explained that big traders were 
aggressively selling on programs 
linked to interest rates and other 
indicators. 

Another factor was riming. “It’s 

See STOCKS, Page 10 


Clinton Gives 
Symbolic Boost 
To Electronics 


Pearson to Make a Bid 
For U.S. Software Firm 


By Erik Ipsen 

International Herald Tribune 

LONDON — President Bill 
Clinton’s decision to lift the ban 
on the sale of high-end tele- 
phone and computer systems to 
China and the former Soviet 
Bloc countries drew praise from 
U.S. companies. But companies 
and analysts in Europe say the 
decision carries little more than 
symbolic importance. 

"It is wishful thinking to say 
that in and of itself this decision 
will open the floodgates of 
American exports to these coun- 
tries,” said Even Miller, a tele- 
communications analyst with 
Lehman Brothers in London. 

Russia does not have the 
funds to pay fra- state-of-the-art 
telephone and computer sys- 
tems and U.S. companies have 


lations and exporting to other 
markets, analysts said. 

“It is already a pretty com- 
petitive market in Eastern Eu- 
rope and Russia," said John 
Cheetham, a spokesman for 
ICL PLC, a British computer 
maker. “I am not sure this will 
make much difference.” 

He noted there was fast- 
growing demand fra the likes of 
personal computers and net- 
works, but comparatively little 
for the hyper-sophisticated and 
pricey state-of-the-art systems 
that had been the sulgect of the 
ban. 

In eastern Europe, American 
companies not only sell com- 
puters, they dominate rite mar- 
ket. Jim Tully, an analyst at 
Dataquest Europe, said the two 
largest foreign computer ven- 
dors in eastern Europe and the 
former Soviet Union are Inter- 
national Business Machines 
Crap, and Hewlett-Packard Co. 
Other U.S. companies, such as 
Unysis Corp., also are enjoying 
some success in the region, he 
said. 

Similarly, in China, the 
world’s fastest-growing tele- 
communication 5 market. 


American Telephone & Tele- 
graph Co. has been active for 
years. James Golob, an analyst 
with S.G. Warburg & Co. in 
London estimates that AT&T’s 
business in China already runs 
to several hundred million dol- 
lars a year, largely in transmis- 
sion systems. Motorola Inc., 
meanwhile, ranks as one of the 
strongest competitors in Chi- 
na's cellular phone market. 

With a tel ecommuni cations 
market that is expected to see as 
much growth as the rest of the 
world combined — from 35 
million lines now to 100 million 
by the end of the century — 
every telephone company in the 
world is already competing in 
China. The prize the likes of 
Alcatel Alstbom, AT&T, LM 
Ericsson AB, Seimens AG and 
others are fiercely fighting for is 
a share of the spending that is 
estimated to total $40 billion by 
the year 2000. 

Mr. Clinton’s decision will 
broaden the range of product 
offerings from America's top 
entrants in that market. As such 
it has won kudos from them. 
But the already- crowded mar- 
ket and the fact that the Ameri- 
cans, in spite of the restrictions 
and needs for cumbersome ex- 
port licenses have been there for 
years anyway, will greatly mod- 
erate that impact. 

The in ffperngntal effect of the 
lifting of the ban can be seen in 
in some of the figures bandied 
about in the last day or two. Fra 
instance, Christopher Padilla, a 
Washington-based government 
affairs specialist fra AT&T, pre- 
dicted that the lifting of restric- 
tions would mean $100 milli on a 
year in new sales for his compa- 
ny. But observers were quick to 
point out that for the world's 
largest telephone company, such 
gams, while certainly welcome, 
rank as decidedly small, 

Mr. Miller said that of far 
greater significance than the 
ban's rad is the question over- 
See EXPORT, Page 10 


Compiled by Our Staff Firm Dispatches 

LONDON — Pearson PLC the 
British media conglomerate, said 
Thursday it planned to expand into 
interactive media by buying the US 
software publisher Software Tool- 
works Inc. for $462 milBon. 

Pearson said it would soon make 
a tender offer at $14.75 for each of 
Software Toolworks’ 29.5 million 
shares outstanding. The offer is 
conditional cm more than 50 per- 
cent of the shares being tendered, 
which analysts pointed out left 
open the possibility of a rival bid. 

Software Toolworks' shares were 
quoted Thursday afternoon in na- 
tional over-the-counter trading at 
$1425, up S425. Pearson’s shares 
fell 21 pares in London, to 645 
pence ($9 .55). 

Software Toolworks, based in 
Novato, California, provides soft- 
ware for personal computers and 
video games, including Nintendo 
and Sega, among its other software 
development and publishing activi- 
ties. Pearson, which publishes Pen- 
guin and Voting bocks, wants to 
put some of its library on compact 
disks to broaden its scope for 000 k 
sales. 

“It’s a very good strategic fit,” 


said Louise Barton, an analyst at 
Henderson CrosSwaithe in Lon- 
don. She said Pearson could not 
have acquired any such business 
fra much less. “It is a full price,” 
she said. “But you can’t get any- 
thing.like this cheap, because these 
companies are in such demand.” 

Lord Blakenham, Pearson’s 
chairman, acknowledged the scale 
of the purchase as he said, “Soft- 
ware Toolworks marks a substan- 
tial investment in our strategy to 
build Pearson into a major interna- 
tional provider of media content." 

Hie price comes to almost four 
times Software Toolworks’ sales of 
$119.6 million in the year ended 
March 31, 1993. 

In the nine months ended Dec. 
31, Software Toolworks had a pre- 
tax profit of $6 million on sales of 
$101.9 minion. 

Pearson’s managing director, 
Frank Barlow, pointing out that 
the price being offered was below 
Software Toolworks’ peak of more 
than $17 a share reached in Octo- 
ber 1993, said, “We're not getting 
in at the top, and what we’re buying 
is a business that’s established and 
already in profit.” 

Pearson said it expected the ac- 
quisition to “mildly” dilute its 


earnings per share in 1994. It said 
the transaction would be paid for 
with cash and some of Pearson’s 
existing debt. 

The acquisition would give Pear- 
son, which also publishes the Fi- 
nancial Times newspaper and is an 
investor in the BSkyB satellite 
broadcasting service, entry into the 
rapidly growing market for videc 
and computer games and would 
help it strengthen Extel, the finan- 
cial information service it bought 
in December. 

“When you get beyond the mul- 
timedia hype, this is about publish- 
ing,” said Robert JoDifle, an ana- 
lyst with Hoare G ovett in London 
Pearson, he said, is gaining aocest 
to skills and expertise to build or 
its existing businesses. 

The proposed acquisition is the 
latest example of print publisher: 
looking for ways to shore up thai 
traditional business. Time Waroei 
Inc., for instance, also supports twe 
makers of video game machines, 
Atari Corp. and 3DO Co. 

Pearson said that spending in the 
United States on interactive media 
formats had increased three times 
as rapidly as spending on tradition- 
al media formats in the past five 
years. f Bloomberg, Reuters, 


Deutsche Bank Gains Abroad 


By Brandon Mitchener 

International Herald Tribune 

FRANKFURT — Deutsche Bank AG boosted its 
operating profit 15.7 percent in 1993 and expects to 
match the “good results” in 1994 but is earning most 
of its money abroad, chairman Hilmar Kopper said 
Thursday. 

Consumer groups have accused Deutsche Bank, 
Germany's hugest, and other big German commercial 
banks of reaping record profits by miflring retail 
customers, aiding tax evaders and refusing to pass 
along low interest rates to consumers. 

But Mr. Kopper, citing growing competition, high 
costs, high defaults on loans and extraordinarily high 
provisions against future loan losses, said the bank's 
German operations “had a terrible year." 

“Deutsche Bank also suffered from the recession," 
but while Germany suffered, foreign subsidiaries 
boosted earnings by 63 percent in the year, he said. 

He declined to give a detailed geographical break- 
down, but said that domestic operations currently 
contribute less than 40 percent of group income, down 
from well over 50 percent a few years ago. 

Operating profit totaled 53 billion Deutsche marks 
($3.16 billion) after risk provisions, which rose 74 


percent from a year earlier, to3J billion DM. Nearij 
all the provisions were made in order to cover default* 
on loans to German corporate customers. 

As fra 1994, Mr. Kopper said it would be “irrespon- 
sible" to expect substantially higher earnings, a senti- 
ment which analysts say applies to all German banks. 

“Even if the economy appears to be escaping reces- 
sion, experience shows that banks tend to feel the result* 
of the crisis far into the recovery ” Mr. Kopper said. 

Mr. Kopper said Deutsche Bazik was reacting 10 
growing competition in Germany and elsewhere by 
diversifying geographically and away from “classic 
banking” in general. 

Off-balance sheet business, inclu ding fee-based 
trading, totaled 1.34 trillion DM in 1993, 14 times the 
balance sheet total of 557 bfilion DM, he noted. Fra 
Swiss and American banks, off-balance sheet opera- 
tions are 7 and 30 times larger, he noted. 

Analysis said Deutsche Bank's results bode weH for 
its rivals, Dresdner Bank AG and Commerzbank AG, 
which are scheduled to report their earnings over the 
next two weeks. Dresdner Bank is expected to report a 
12 to 18 percent increase in operating profit, while 
Commerzbank is expected to post a rise of 15 to 19 
percent 



Hillary Couldn’t Do It Today 


By Jerry Knight 

Washington Post Service 

T he cattle futures market where Hillary 
Rodham Clinton made a 100-to-l profit 
in her first foray in tire late 1970s, is a 
game so perilous that brokers warn small 
investors they should not play. 

Her success — turning a $1,000 investment into 
nearly $100,000 in a little more than a year — 
shows why small investors have long been lured 
into s peculating in Chicago's commodity futures 
markets. 

But with academic studies docu m e n ti ng that 75 
percent to 90 percent of individual futures traders 
lose money in the long run, most small investors 
have abandoned the markets to professionals who 
have the computers and the capital needed for 
consistent success. 

“It’s a lot easier to start with $100,000 and end 
up with $1,000." said one trader at the Chicago 
Mercantile Exchange. 

The object is to predict the price of beef months 
ahead, a tricky task that requires outsmarting 
thousands of cattle raisers, meat packers and pro- 
fessional speculators trying to do the same thing. 

Although only an amateur, JfiBaiy Clinton 
managed 10 guess right in 1978 and 1979 during 
oneof the rare periods when a stampede of specu- 
lators produced a bull market m cattle futures. 
Repeating her success would be impossible today 
tSa^rokerage firms - to protect both inves- 
tors and themselves —no longer let someonewuh 
only $1,000 get into the nsky business of buying 
and selling commodity futures 
Futures contracts are complex legal agreements 

to sell somebody something in 

at a price agreed upon now. Hie essence ot uze 


game thus is betting on whether prices win go up ra 
down before you have to deliver. 

It is not a game for amateurs. 

Walk into an office of Merrill Lynch & Co. and 
ask to open a futures account, and you'll be asked 
to bare your financial souL Before Merrill Lynch 
will take your money, you must show you make at 
least $50,000 a year and have a net worth of 
$200,000 — not counting your house, insurance 
pohries and retirement account. 

Next, a regional vice president win look at a 
detailed assessment of your investment skills. If 
you’re judged sophisticated enough to play the 
game, yoall need to pul up $20,000 before you 
make your first trade. 

The reason brokers are so reluctant to lake on 
potentially profitable customers is the extraordi- 
nary risk entailed in commodity futures trading. 

toe rides are great because futures traders do 
not simply buy a batch of some commodity and 
wait to see if the price goes up or down. They 
.leverage their investment by maxing a down pay- 
'ment 5 about 2 percent of the cost of what they are 
buying. That means that if the price jumps 10 
percent, they make five times as much as they put 
tq>. But if the price drops 5 percent they lose five 
times as much as they invested. 

In cattle futures, the down payment — called a 
mar gin deposit — is $600 for a contract valued at 
just over $30,000 covering 40,000 pounds of ham- 
burger on the hoof. 

The Merc, where Hillary din ton made her loll- 
ing in cattle, and the Chicago Board of Trade are 
the center of futures trading for the world because 
they have turned an old-fashioned idea into a 
state-of-the-art financial tooL 

Futures trading began as a way for grain buyers 

See FUTURES, Page 14 


CURRENCY & INTEREST RATES 


IBM Japan, Posting ’93 Loss, Cites Restructuring 

Compiled by Ow Staff From Dispatches Under its new president, Kaku- June Namioka, a spokeswoman Thousands of others were trans- important market outsid 
TOKYO — IBM Janan I.td^ Iona laro Kitashiro, IBM Japan last year for IBM Japan, said the unit had fared from administrative duties America. 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches Under Its new president, KakU- 

TOKYO— IBM Japan Ltd, long laro Kitashiro, IBM Japan last year 
an important source of profit fra its sp 1111 °ff two major subsidiaries, 
U.S. parent, an Thursday reported IBM Japan General Business Co. 
its first annual loss, a 1993 deficit of and IBM Japan Services Business 
23.5 billion yen ($228 mfflion) that it Co., which are included in its cou- 
blanted on restructuring costs and sohdated figures, 
the high value of the yen. The company said its consolidat- 

Theunit, like International Bus- ed revenue in Japan alone rose 1.0 
ness Machines Corp. in the United percent, to 9032 billion yen, but 
States, is trying to art costs by revenue from exports dropped 72 
reducing its work force while shift- percent, to 334.7 billion yen. 
mg its focus from large computers IBM Japan’s exports are mainly 
to software and services. pans that are sold to other IBM 

Its loss fra the calendar year — operations and priced in dollars, 
the only one since the unit was Toe yen's appreciation against the 
established in 1937 — foDowed a dollar during the year meant that 
45 percent drop in profit in 1992 to IBM Japan received fewer yen for 


312 billion yea. 


those exports. 


Bank Negara Suffers 
Massive Trading Loss 


Compiled by Our Staff Fnm Dispaltha 

KUALA LUMPUR —The Ma- 
laysian government said Thursday 
it was considering firing its central 
bank governor after the bank dis- 
closed a 5.7 billion ringgit ($2 bfl- 


Jbrahim, who also is the finance P 8 "* 5 “r" 
minister, said he was studying a Janar saw. 
letter from Governor Jaffar Hus- 35-year-old bank also re- 

sein before deciding whether to re- P^ed Its 5*^3^ . 

place him. Mr. Jaffar said he took last 3 ^. of 712 million nnggii, 
r - mainly because of having to mop 

up 66 billion ringgit in excess h- 
quidity that gushed in to speculate 
on the local currency. 

— Mr. Jaffar has been the central 

UAmhai bank governor since February 
1985. Under his stewardship, Bank 
StertUte yob ecu Negara buDt a formidable reputa- 

si«* non as a feared and aggressive 

wSt 2 Mv. i^w speculator an mtcrnauonalcurren- 

5 *vs sat*** 2 v»-j v. t r*4 h cy markets. 

5<tuyw 5<*tr*a. 2*r3*. wvs But 1993 marked the second year 

its dealings went awry. 

Honmtnbmm (orevhndentK ^ 1992 currency ^ 

ing losses were largely a result of 
the collapse in the pound when 
BrtUt Britain withdrew from the Europe- 

Bo* base n>t« 5W su. an Monetary System’s exchange- 

caflm ww rate mechanism. Mr. Jaffar attrib- 

SSSm 1% s* uted the losses in 1993 to 

frmooift taiwtw* 5* unwinding forward positions taken 

the year before. 

inttnrsaHea rote mo “In the absence of perfect fore- 

hnontb uttrt»nk * Jaffar said. ^But often, the price of 

K J qSP"* m? inaction could be just as serious.” 

sources.' Routers. Bioomoerv, htrrin He said the bank’s balance sheet 

remains strong, with toial assets 
rising 68 percent, to exceed, for the 
CWd first time, 100 biffion ringgit 

AJX. P-M. Oftt « “T . . - f 

Zorich 387 JO 38M0 +r “ SpecuiaUOT IS TUc IMI a jj-VwT 

LoadM 38970 38979 +205 old commercial banker, Ismail Za- 

New York 3 mjo 393* karia, chairman of the Association 

as. donors per ounce. Lutdoa a ffleto/ ftt- R anW in Malaysia, tS & likely 

astern w mm*. 

MFP, Reuters, Kmtfu-Ridder) 


Mar. 31 

Cross Rat®* FJ= 1^ an IF- If- TO C* Panta 

* 1 HIM* Ml* 1333 U»* UB IOT* 

AmOCttuo U* ** iS X Iffi' WM US 81! 

Bnnttfe ".MS 2UM . 02901 U5M* UM7 i-an* 

Frankfort «« 7 Z. ZZh MBU2 i»» RS UIB UW IttB Mo 

UHMkP(a) UW JX XI MM* 7ZB? MB* HSU HUB* W> 

Mdm W» K5 SSI ^ USU0 ,ua 

mhoT w» 7 suaw«w»*uwi u wins IS UB uw 
Tofcra uS* aw MW* »■ “'r w 

SSL * a s 5" ** «■* — 

zorkti w *** *2 imti vm 3«» uw ,B3B 

JECU 


BrunsK 
Frankfort 
LMMfto (o) 
Madrid 


t Deposits 




March 31 

D-Mark 

5wm 

Franc 

Start iW 

French 

Fronc 

Yon 

ECU 

5Wr5>H. 

4MVI, 

SVb-SV. 

MIA 

2 *w-2 It 

6VWPO 

SYwSVm 

4 Hr4 JW 

5U-5H 

5<Kr6K 

2 M v. 

6**6 W 

5VWW b 

4-4* 

5 «V5 *■ 


2 *r2 V, 


5h6h 

3VW4H. 


5<«r6K. 

2Kr3«. 

64Vft 


Tokvo 0MS9* 0W l *"» l 

M W S S ES 5" t* “*■ 

zertet, w *** *2 vm vrn UM now uw sun 

jecu SoSa*""** “ ” 

1 SDR !** t* 0 York Ota 

100; 

TrTI^POundrb: To on"*#*. - W 

available. 


i months dVKtfc 5VW% 4-4* 5 <V5 *■ StMfk, 2 fcr2 

\ yew 5*r5fc 3VW4Vfc 5«r4ft 5<*W4K. 2Kr3 

Sources: Reuters. Uovda Bank. 

Ratos mOcatUe to Interbank asrxnttsotSI rmianmtnlnwmforemilvak-ntK 


Othar Dollar VaJuM 

Cummer P wf_ Gn«kdro& 

Anwit. pew 0.9901 iumKOMS 770 
tunbvLS I*® Hom-Mrinl 
Aaafr.Khll. H-* 3 insum nrom 3T - a 
arm am. **» m^rar** 
GMnMeyMB btitiD 0d» 

CzodikonNW 79M wck 2777 

Oontah krone kSX 02977 

farm, pend W ZA82 

Fin. markka S47S5 


curmcr Wr* 
Max. neto 3357 

K.ZH*Ml* 1J7V7 
Herw.kroM 7279 
PhtLoeso VJ0 

totisbtiotv xm* 
pcrttaarto m» 
pun. ruble 
SoUdlrtVol 37S01 


Cnrraocr Part 
.5. Air, rood 047J5 
S. Kor. Mm 80720 
S W d. k rooo IMS 
Taiwan s 2U1 

Thai MW 3S25 

TorkUtllro 2ZI59. 
UAEdbtum 1471 
VaaoLhaihr. lisjj7 


Key Mon«y Rules 

UomdSWes Closa Prev. 

Otacoonf rate 380 M0 

Prtaiarata dU M 

Federal toads 4JU 3% 

l-month CDs 1C U7 

Comm, paper U0 dors 427 405 

3-BMaHi TKawrr bfll MS 147 

Vrear Treasury bfli 4 tt 419 

TwTnBHVMti 5.18 5.15 

S^mar Treasury net* 623 622 

T-roorTreaurvaafe 437 626 

I t y s ar T nwnn r owto 474 676 


BrtlaM 

Bonk base rate 
CaH money 
Hnonth tofertonk 
laterbaak 
Smooth Menank 
lOwor OUt 
France 

In te rrtlffea rate 
Cofl mow 
1-moMtt Utenw* 
J-mooth unrtKmk 
tHBoatta toterbaak 


Manm LrncaaMor tteoarotiet no. no. 


Forwrard "**•* ^ "SS ‘tS’SS 

Cwraocr ^ 1<47 n lum van mn 

Kxmcstertea JW**"** 

***** mar * , 413a Ml® Bona Cammerdole ItaUona 

*** franc »-«» An(WU « Bank f^SbMdTa«mt Bank of Omads 

Sources: ING Bonk tAneMf^^J^rSank of Taka (Tokyo,. 


Swfnfli tottrtonk 
tmwttl loMrbdnk 
KHfwr Omranwnt bond 


Sources: Routers. Bioomoent, Mrrlii 
Lynch. Bank of Tokyo, Commerzbank, 
GrsemieU Mentaw. Cridft Lyonnais. 


Zurich 
London 
New York 


Sources; INC {Parts); ^ . « 

MtHorU; AaenceFtm crAww Reuter* and A? 

rr«».i - {SDR}- Other 


(AFP, Reuters, Krtighi-Ridder) 


June Namioka, a spokeswoman 
fra IBM Japan, said the unit had 
met its goal of selling 200,000 per- 
sonal computers last year and 
hoped to seff 300,000 this year. 

IBM Japan said it took an ex- 
traordinary charge erf 49.1 billion 
yen last year, mostly for restructur- 
ing costs. 

While avoiding the layoffs im- 
posed by its parent — which aims to 
cut its work force to around half of 
its 1986 peak — IBM Japan cut 
nearly 2,000 positions last year 
through attrition and early retire- 
ment. leaving it with 23216 employ- 
ees as of Dec. 31, including workers 
assigned to subsidiaries and affili- 
ates, its spokeswoman said. 


Thousands of others were trans- 
ferred from administrative duties 
to sales and service posts. 

Beyond IBM’s troubles, profits 
have dropped throughout Japan’s 
computer mdttstiy as demand has 
slumped because of the country’s 
stumbling economy. 

NEC Corp- and Fujitsu LtiL, 
which ftlyi make large mainframe 
computers, reported their first 
losses last year. like IBM, they are 
struggling to respond to a world- 
wide shift from mainframes to 
smaller, cheaper computers joined 
in networks. 

As in the United States, IBM was 
caught without any competitive 
small computers in Japan, its most 


important market outside Nartfc 
America. 

But the shift to networks is oc- 
curring more slowly in Japan than 
elsewhere, giving IBM Japan more 
of a chance to respond. 

After losing market share in re- 
cent years to NEC and Fujitsu, ii 
gained position last year in person- 
al and the larger engineerings work- 
station computers. 

IBM Japan was sixth in worksta- 
tion shipments, with 4.7 percent of 
the market in 1993, up 0.1 point 
from 1992, 1DC Japan, a market 
research company, said Thursday. 
It moved from fourth to third place 
in personal-computer shipments. 

(AP, AFP, Reuters ) 


full responsibility for the losses and 
hinted ne would quit 
“1 suppose that is the most rea- 
sonable thing to do,” he said. 

Mr. Jaffar also said Bank Negara 
had dosed its forward-contracted 


lion) loss from a disastrous foray foreign exchange positions and 
into international currency mar- would only deal in spot transac- 
kets last year. lions from now on. 

Deputy Prime Minister Anwar unfortunate chapter in the 

Ibrahim, who also is the finance Rank's history is now dosed, Mr. 


BlancpaiN 





The ultra-slim watch 


Since 1735 there has 

NEVER BEEN A QUARTZ BLANCPAIN WATCH. 
And THERE NEVER WILL BE. 


BENOIT 
DE GORSkI 

8 £i RUE DU RHONE IXWGENfVE 1 ft. 38 M 30 
CHE5£RY PLATZ GSTAAD TtL. 030-4TI 66 


(Toronto); IMF tSDRI 








• IV. *.-19*' 


I Page XO 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 1, 1994 




market diary 


Trade Nervousness 

Pulls Down Dollar 


Vlfl Aueocrtod Pnu 


Compiled by Our Siaff Fran Dispatches 

NEW YORK — The dollar 
slumped in active trading Thursday 
as the yen rose in anticipation oi 
possible US. trade actions against 
Japan. 

Several traders said the dollar 
would have nowhere to go but 
down if the two countries do not 
patch up their trade dispute soon. 

“The dollar will stay low. be- 
cause that's the playbook the Clin- 

Forajgn Exchange 

ton administration has been us- 
ing," said Paul Wong, head foreign 
exchange trader at Bank of Boston. 

The dollar slipped to 102.70 yen 
from 102.84 Wednesday. With the 
dollar steadily heading closer to its 
record low of 100.40 yen, fewer 
traders see the 100-yen level as sa- 
cred. 

“Can the dollar go through 100 
yen? Of course it can," Mr. Wong 
said, but be quickly added. “All 
you can say on a short-term basis 
is, it will be very volatile." 

The U.S. government is believed 
to want the yen to remain strong 
against the dollar as a way of mak- 
ing Japanese products expensive 


and cutting Japan's trade deficit — 
even though a high yen also would 
tend to depress a Japanese econo- 
my that Washington would like to 
see stimulated. 

“The dollar-yen looks a one-way 
trade in the short term." said Amy 
Smith, an analyst at the consulting 
firm IDEA. 

Against other major currencies, 
the dollar fefl to 1.6740 Deutsche 
marks from 1.675 1 DM on Wednes- 
day, to 1.4137 Swiss francs from 
1.4185 and to 5.7200 French francs 
from 5.7237. The pound rose to 
$1.4835 from $1.4795. 

Some analysts said the past sever- 
al days of tumbling stock prices also 
was a factor. 

“It seems the dollar is trading off 
because of the nervousness in the 
stock market." said David Durst, 
vice president of Bear, StcarnsA Co. 

The dollar rose against the Cana- 
dian dollar despite rising Canadian 
interest rates. Investors sold the 
Canadian currency on concerns 
about that country's burgeoning 
budget deficit and unsettled politi- 
cal climate. 

The dollar rose to 13835 Cana- 
dian dollars from 13793 Wednes- 
day. (AFX Reuters) 



Dow Jones Averages 


Own High Low Las a*. 
Indus 3639.71 3650.6S 3S59JJ9 3635.96 -931 
Tram 16*036 164ZJ7 1398-55 1635.19 —331 
Utfl 177.86 19833 173-58 l?fcja — 132 
Caraa 1301.16 130193 1273.13 1397.77 —051 


EUROPEAN FUTURES 


STOCKS: Investors on Sidelines 


Continued from Page 9 
the last day of the quarter and it is a 
disaster," said Phil Orlando of 
First Capital Advisers. “Generally 
you see some window-dressing, but 
it appears chat now managers warn 
to show cash and not stocks, and 
they are dumping stocks regardless 
of quality and valuation." 

Stock markets will be closed Fri- 
day for the Easter weekend, but 

U.S. Stocks 

bond markets will be open briefly 
and are likely to react to the March 
employment figures, which are ex- 
pected to show good job growth, if 
only to make up for the slowdowns 
resulting from severe winter weath- 
er earlier in the year. But the poten- 
tial effect on bonds was enough to 
make some fund managers stay out 
of harm’s way for the weekend. 

Will Monday look better or. as it 
did on Black Monday in October of 
1987, bring a collapse? 

In reply. Vice President A1 Gore 
wisely repeated the old Wall Street 
chestnut on television Thursday 
morning, “Markets go up. and mar- 
kets go down." 

President Bill Clinton also tried 
to reassure investors. The Associat- 
ed Press reported from San Diego, 
California. “No one believes (Sac 
there is a serious problem with the 
underlying American economy," 
he said after a bill-signing ceremo- 
ny. “It is healthy and it is sound.” 

Looking for bargains, David 
Shulman, Salomon Brothers Inc. s 
chief U.S. equity strategist, raised 


his stock allocation to 50 percent 
from 45 percent by shifting 5 per- 
cent from cash because be believed 
the month's sharp declines of about 
8 percent have “cured about half the 
overvaluation" in the market, and 
“you don't have to be as cautious as 
before." 

Byron Wein, chief stock strategist 
for Morgan Stanley & Co, said the 
market bad “not hit a final bottom, 
but there win be a bottom soon. The 
sell-off is a matter of supply and 
demand and it will soon be time to 
look for buying opportunities.” 

Abby Joseph Cohen, co-chairman 
of the investment policy committee 
for Goldman. Sachs & Co, said she 
actually found stocks 15 percent un- 
dervalued in terms of the outlook 
for Che economy and the earnings of 
good companies. Fund managers, 
she said, overreacted to the Federal 
Reserve Board's decision to raise 
interest rates early this year “and 
they are rd octant to stay in the 
market while it is going down. This 
is just the flip ride of them all rush- 
ing in when it was going up." 

Although some managers were 
believed to be raising cash in the 
expectation that mutual fund inves- 
tors would be cashing in, there was 
as yet no indication that any such 
tidal wave would overwhelm them. 

Major fund houses such as Fidel- 
ity and Vanguard said investments 
in stock funds were still growing 
this month but more slowly, while 
bond funds had shown small net 
losses as inexperienced investors 
pulled oul 



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30799 

131k 

ia*a 

12'j 

1 . 

IntgDv 

29034 

toft 

23ft 

254'a 

— ft 

3Com 

sftm 

56V. 

S3ft 

551a 

-Hi 

AitetfVsn 

15604 

10% 

8’t 

9ft 


Lotus 

2SS44 

71ft 

68 

70 Vi 

-ft 

ak Sieel 

25542 

23 ft 

3JVa 

3J1T 


AMEX Most Actives 


VoL 

Hah 

LOW 

Lost 

On. 


HonvOir 

RorcflO o 

tvoj.Cn 

ExpLA 

SPUR 

ChevSKs 

EehoBoy 

ENSCO 

Han wra 

ViacB 


19680 6’M 6ft 6ft 
10334 4Wu 4V- 4ft 
10060 2416 23 Hi M’k 

9974 IV, i IV* IVk 
7869 44".* 43> V- 44 Vi 
7683 36 234 < 351* 
6535 134 134 Mlk 

6056 3Yi ( 3V.i 3V* 
5334 V* Vu ft 
4875 274 254 76 Vi 


—4 

-’4 

-»k 
- ft 

* 

—4 


Market Sales 


Today Prev. 

4 pjn. cons. 

NYSE 40424 46*292 

Amax 26.10 24.465 

Nosdoo 38X33 398.194 

In mlUlons. 


Stocks Jump in Milan 

Reuters 

MILAN — Euphoria swept over 
the Milan bourse on Thursday as 
investors bet on the swift creation of 
a government led by the media in- 
vestor Silvio Berlusconi and antici- 
pated that the rightist government 
would be gpod for the market- 

Tbe stock market's M IB index 
finishe d 3 percent higher, and trad- 
ing bad to to be extended by 30 
minutes to cope with record turn- 
over. The lira and Italian bonds 
also made hefty gains during the 
session as confidence in Italy’s fi- 
nancial markets soared. 


Stamted & Poor’s Indexes 

industrials 

TrartSP. 

Utilities 

Finance 

SP500 

SP 100 

Previous 

Htoh Low dose 
529.14 521.18 521.18 

4X4X5 397X7 397X7 
1X7X7 15614 15616 

4240 41X7 41X7 

452X9 445X5 44655 
419 JO 41235 41235 

Today 
4 PA 
52079 
39653 
15634 
4218 
44574 
41233 

NYSE Indexes 


High 

Low Lost 

Chg. 

Composite 

tnausirtals 

Transp. 

Utility 

Finance 

347.93 

30671 

252X9 

709.01! 

20680 

242X2 247.04 
298.28 30654 
247.17 25248 
20600 20635 
201X2 20*30 

— Oto 

—a jo 

• aj4 
—032 
—OJ5 

NASDAQ Indexes 


Nigh 

LOW Last 

Chg. 

Composite) 

Industrials 

Bantu 

Insurance 

Fkrance 

Transo. 

Telecom 

747X2 

781X3 

47500 

S8354 

a*.i9 

759X4 

141.19 

732X2 741.19 —3.72 
74275 775.9* —ltd 

W0 -73 67X33 US 

B74.17 879.11 ZijS 
849X2 871X0 —8X8 
743X3 749JS — 10JT) 
157X7 158X2 -2J2 

AMEX Stock Index 


Htoh 

Law 3PM 

Ota. 


445.45 

437X4 440.11 

—543 

Dow Jones Bond Averages 

20 Bonds 

ID utilities 

10 Industrials 


Previous 

Close 

toojo 

98X1 

10259 

Today 

Noon 

100*3 

9BJ1 

102X4 

NYSE Diary 



Oase Prev. 

Advances 
Declined 
Unchanged 
Total issues 
New Highs 

New Lows 


753 357 

1539 2041 

51* 405 

2 808 2803 

4 4 

473 403 

AMEX Diary 



dose prev. 

Advanced 
Declined 
Unchanged 
Tumi issues 
New Highs 
Now Lows 


212 

455 

19* 

843 

4- 

74 

10* 

5U 

TO 

344 

1 

*0 

Previous NASDAQ Diary 


Metals 

cine 

8M Asfe 
ALUMINUM (Htoh Grade) 
Dollar* per metric ton 
Spat 129000 1291 JH 

Forward 13K00 131520 
COPPER CATHODES (High 
Dollars per metric tsa 
5001 1876X0 1877.05 

Forward 1688X0 1B805Q 

LEAD 

DoUara per metric ton 
Spot 44450 44550 

Forward 45750 458JM 

NICKEL 

Dollars per metric ton 
Spat 5575X0 5585X0 

Forward 5640X0 5645X0 

TIN 

Dolton per metric ton 
Soot 5420X0 5430X0 

Forward 547DXQ 5480X0 

ZINC (Spedal High Grade) 
Dehors per m et ric ton 
Spot 934X0 935X0 

Forward 954X0 955X0 


Prwtoo* 

Bkf As* 

1297X0 1298X0 
1320X0 1321X0 
Grade) 

1876X0 1877X0 
1B99X0 189050 


' Htgti Low Lost Settle OT 

Oct N.T. N.T. N.T. 143JI +QJS 

JJm. J4425 140X0 146X0 14&25 +050 

Inc 148X0 147X0 14735 141.JS U«fl. 

I Joa 14 8X0 148X0 148X0 1«J5 +050 

ESS. volume: 9X92 . Open Ini 114X21 

BRENT CRUDE OIL WM , ^ 

US dollars per barrel-lots of 1X00 barrels 


44850 

46250 


44950 

463X0 


5530X0 5525X0 
£592X0 5595X0 


5410X0 5420X0 
5465X8 5*70X8 



1230 

1214 


1239 

1224 

JBJ 


1239 

1253 


1277 

1272 


1290 

1290 


1605 

1605 


1610 


Jaa 

N.T. 


Est. volume: 27.131 . 


939X0 

960.00 


94050 

96050 


Financial 


9453 


■0X1 


Him Low ctose Change 
3-MONTH STERLING CLIFF E) 

£500/906 - p|s oflOO PCt 
JUP 9459 94.47 

SCP 94X9 94X4 

DOC 94.16 9195 

Mar 9175 93X9 

Jim 9124 92.97 

Sep 7235 9145 

Dec 9141 92X7 

Mar 92X3 9173 

Jan 91X4 91X8 

Sen 91X5 9139 

Dec 91X7 91.11 

Mar 90.94 90.92 - „ 

Est. volume: 75318. Open tat.: 8 47MSL 
3-MONTH EURODOLLARS (LIFFEJ 


94XS —0X1 
94X3 +0X7 

93X2 +0.15 

93.1? + 02B 

9275 +0X0 

92X8 + 0X3 

92X7 * 0X6 ! Jun 

91X4 + 0-3S ; 

91 XS +040 | 

91-47 +040 

91X0 + 0-44 | 

I 

I 


Stock Indexes 

Him Low Close Oicnge 

FTSE tOO (LIFFE) 

OS per Index petal 

jgg 30910 3549 X 3Q67X +8X 

fep mo 3069 X 3065-0 + 8X 

Die NT. N.T. 30WX +8X 

Est. volume: 15X69. Open nit: 58X50. 

High Law Close Change 

CAC48 (MATIF) 

2091.10 +8.10 

Apr 2118X0 2076X0 358SX0 —7X0 

Ntuf 310950 2082X0 20MXO -7.00 


SI mllBan 

• ptSOMHpd 



Jan 

95X5 

96*5 

92*3 

— 0X1 

Sep 

95.19 

95.19 

9215 

— OX+ 

Dec 

N.T. 

N.T. 

96*S 

— 0JJ7 

Mar 

9643 

94X3 

9<xa 

— 004 

Jun 

N.T. 

N.T. 

9609 

— 0X5 

SCP 

N.T. 

N.T. 

9181 

— 0X5 


2112X0 2041X0 207050 — 750 

71T2X0 2100X0 2090X0 — 7X0 

Dec 711250 271250 272L50 — 7J» 
Est. volume: 58.158. Open InL: 81.136- 

Sources: Mar l(. Associated Press. 
L on d on I nil pmanctei Futures fire ftenee. 
mil Petroleum EnsOanoe 


Dividends 


Est. volume: 191: 299 9X77. 
3-MONTH EUROMARKS [LIFFE) 
DM1 mitilan - pts of IDO ea 


Jun 

94X8 

9653 

9655 

+-CLB3 

Ste 

9683 

9676 

VAST 

+ 0X4 

Dec 

7SJ» 

9691 

960! 

+ 009 

Mar 

95.13 

9603 

9608 

+ 0X7 

Jun 

94X8 

94X0 

9697 

+ 009 

Ste 

9677 

94X8 

9*77 

+ 0.10 

Dec 

9655 

94X6 

94X4 

+aos 

Mar 

9638 

94 JO 


+ 007 

Jun 

9620 

94.10 

9618 

+ 0X9 

5ep 

9254 

9286 

9X99 

+ nnt 

Due 

92X5 

7283 

93X6 

+ 0X6 

Mar 

92*8 

93X8 

9170 

+ 005 

Est volume: 78X01 

Open Int.: 3M1X17. 


Coawenr 

Per 

Aral 

Pay 

Rec 

IRREGULAR 



AscaABADR 

X1J747 

619 

5-17 

Burahcm Fund 

_ 

JO 

3-31 

611 

CammenSense Grw 

_ 

X675 

SGI 

615 

Gcbeill Ea Jnco 


M 

230 

Ml 

Phoenlu KiYId 


X 65 

MO 

67 

Phoecix TxEx 

m 

0536 

Ml 

Ml 



B 49 

3-30 




04 

3-28 

321 

WPG GrwtbA Inca 

m 

.11 

Ml 

64 


U.S. /AT THE CLOSE 

U.S. Growth Revised, but Still Strong 

WASHINGTON (Combined Dispatches) — The government said 
Thursday that the US. economy grew at a 7.0 percent annual rate m the 
f inal three months of 1993, down a bit from its earlier estimate of o 
percent but still a sizzling pace not likely to be duplicated 1 this j ear. 

The fourth-quarter growth rate was more than double the -.9 percent 
rate turned in during the July-September quarter. For the year, the 
economy grew 3 percent, the strongest annual growth since the economy 
expanded 3.9 percent in 1988. . . 

The government also reported that corporate profits in the fourth 

S iter rose 8.4 percent to $297.4 billion and were up 10.7 percent tor the 
year, for the strongest annua] performance since 1990. 

In an influential regional economic report, the Chicago Association of 
Purchasing Management said hs index of economic growth rose to 66.5 m 
March from 60 J in February, pointing to an expansion. (Bloomberg, AP) 

Chrysler Plans Quality Improvement 

NEW YORK (Renters) — Seeking to improve its quality standards. 
Chrysler Coro, on Thursday unveiled a Sl.5 billion spending plan to 
upgrade its plants, improve testing and retrain its workers over the next 
five Years. 

The funds, part of a previously announced $20 trillion capital spending 
pro gram, are aimed at improving so-called “core processes" at Chiysler's 
powertrain, body stamping and assembly operations. 

Despite the success of its newest vehicles, the country’s third-larges: 
automaker has still not cracked the top 10 list of quality models, 
according to surveys by the consulting group JJ5. Power & Associates. 


3-MONTH FRENCH FRANC (MAT I FI 


F=F5miman 

-pts or 100 ect 

9415 

+ 0.13 


9619 

94X3 



9627 






94X2 

+ 0X9 

Mar 

94X8 

9656 


+ 0.12 



94X4 

+ai3 

Sep 

9642 

«J9 

94X1 

+ai3 


9622 

9614 

9621 

+ 111 

Mm- 

93X8 

929S 

9606 

+an 


Advanced 

Declined 

Unchanged 
total issun 
New Highs 
Now LOWS 


922 

2425 

1510 

4857 

13 

210 


prev. 

rvc. 


Est. volume: 71.962 O sen tat ; 257-472 j 
LONG GILT (LIFFE) 

06000 - pts & Bads d 19Q pet ' 

Jun 109-00 107-03 10M6 +0-14 

Sep 107-09 107-09 107-07 + 3-11 i 

Est. volume : 74X42. Open int- 6 7585*1 ! 

GERMAN GOVERNMENT MIND IUFFE7 i 
DM 250X00 -pts Of 100 PCt 
Jon 96«3 96X1 9677 +EL40 

Sep 96X5 95.92 9656 +0X3 * 

Est. volume: 9&744L Open Inf.: 0 204X61 I 
10-YEAR FRENCH GOV. BONDS (MATIF) 1 
FF3OQXO0 - pts of TOCpet 
Jon 124.10 121X4 12234 +078 < 

Sep 123X0 122X4 12110 +074 I 

Dec 121X4 121X4 12240 +074 I 

EST. volume: 234.972 Open tat.: 151-449. I 

Industrials 

High Low Lost Settle (Woe : 

GASOIL IIPE) . 1 

UJS. doUory per metric ton-tots of 108 tons 
Apr 13050 137XS 137X5 137X5 +150 I 

Mar 13625 13*25 13000 136X0 + US I 

Jun 136X5 135X0 13550 11550 +150 ; 

Jnl 13723 136X0 13650 13650 +1X5 

Aug 139X0 138X0 138X5 13850 +1X5 : 

SOP 141X0 14050 14050 14050 + 075 < 


x-oppra* amount per shore. 

STOCKSPLtT 

Cell tech Media 1 for 10 reverse split. 
Rochester Tel 2 for 1 split. 

INCREASED 

wcvrteSvgsLn a .18 4-11 4-26 

REDUCED 

Am Cap HiYId inv M X473 3-31 4-15 

INITIAL 

Fidellfy FdSv8k FL _ X7S 3-30 4-15 

REGULAR 

AGE Fund M XZ2 3-31 4-15 

AmCcDCorpBd M X4 3X1 4-15 

AffiCCPFedtMtgA M X45 4-29 +29 

ArrrCap FedMlaB M JJ345 4-29 +29 

AmCop GlnGvSec A M X575 3-31 4-15 

Am Cop GtbGvSCC B M XS15 3-31 +15 

AmCrrpGv Secor M XS5 4-4 4-15 

AmCopMuni Bd M X475 >31 +15 

AriCop TexMun Sec M .045 4-29 +29 

Bank Southington O X5 5-28 6-29 

CcmmcnSertse Muni M X475 3-31 +15 

Deal Foods a .w s-20 6-is 

Franklin CATxFr M X37 3-31 +15 

FnmkBn CorpQaol M X7B 3-31 +15 

Franklin FetD M X65 3-31 +15 

FranJOta Incn Fd M X15 3X1 +15 

Franklin Inv Grd M X33 3-31 +15 

Franldta NY TxFr M XU 3-31 4-15 

Franklin F*rem Ret Q X35 3-30 +15 

Franklin US Gv M X44 3-31 +15 

interstate Baker G .125 +15 5-2 

Merchants Bncn Q X85 +15 +29 

MDIerHermon Q .13 S-Z7 7-15 

Patriot Pf Div MX962S +14 +28 

Poise Bancorp O .15 +12 +26 j 

united tndustl Q X7 5-6 5-27 | 

aanno at; g-payn&te to Canadian tonds; m- ; 
uwulhty; Miuuitatti 


EXPORT; A Symbolic Move 


Continued from Page 9 

banging the renewal of C hina 's 
most-favored-nation trade status 
with the United States. If concerns 
over human rights violations 
causes Washington not to renew 
China’s preferential status, U.S. 
suppliers would “be completely 
shut out of that market over- 
night," Mr. Miller said 

On the other hand, trade rules — 
be they imposed by Washington, 
Bonn or Beijing — can always be 
skirled. One analyst pointed to the 


example of Alcatel, which enjoys a 
40- to 50-percent share of China's 
telephone-switching market. Two 
years ago, France's sale of Mirage 
fightera to Taiwan resulted in an 
enraged Beijing slapping a tempo- 
rary ban on French imports, winch 
was overcome by sourcing the 
switches from Alcatel subsidiaries. 

When it comes to Russia, the 
problem is not politics as much as 
money. “In Russia the problem is 
not demand but a lack of money 
and a situation of complete chaos." 
Mr. Golob said. 


To Our Readers 

Because of the seven-hour 
time difference between New 
York and Paris until April 3, 
some items in the Market 
Summary' above are from 3 
PAT New York time instead 
of the usual 4 P.M 

We regret the inconve- 
nience. winch is necessary to 
meet distribution require- 
ments. All editions will again 
carry closing prices and index- 
es after April 3. when Daylight 
Saving Time begins in the 
United States. 


Canadian Prime Rates Heading Up 

MONTREAL (Bloomberg) —The Royal Bank of Canada said Thurs- 
day it was raising key lending rates, including its prime rate, following the 
spike upward that Canadian government rates have taken in the past few 
weeks. 

Canada's short-term interest rates have jumped more than 175 basis 
points in the past two months as the Bank of Canada fought weakness in 
the Canadian dollar caused by uncertainty about Canada's fiscal and 
political situation. 

The Royal Bank of Canada raised its prime rate to 6.75 percent from 
6_25 percent, its five-year closed mortgage rate to 9 JO percent from 8.95 
percent and its six-month convertible mortgage rate to 7 J percent from 
6 o percent Other banks are expected to follow suit, analysts said. 

Parretti Sues MGM, Credit Lyonnais 

BEVERLY HILLS, California (Reutere) — Giancarlo Parretti, the 
Italian financier who bought Metro-Gddwyn-Mayer Inc. in November 
1990, filed a $3.9 billion lawsuit Thursday against MGM and Credit 
Lyonnais, the French bank that seized the company after Mr. Parretti 
defaulted on his loans. 

The lawsuit, filed in Los Angdes Superior Court, also names as 
defendants various past and present officers and director of the bank, 
MGM and Pathe Communications, a former film company once con- 
trolled by Mr. Parretti. 

The soft charges violations of federal racketeering statues and fraud 
and conspiracy by the defendants to take over the ownership of MGM 
and Pathe from Mr. Parretti. 

Lorenzo Rejects Government Offer 

NEW YORK (AP) — A would-be airline started by Frank Lorenzo 
rejected a government offer Thursday for another round of hearings into 
thecompan/s request for permission tofly. 

‘ Transportation 
tion to deter- 
said it has 

already spent at least SI milli on in the year of fighting to get a certificate 
and dial agreeing to a second hearing would amount to “legitimizing a 
flawed process.” 

Mr. Lorenzo, who is reducing his 77 percent stake in the effort to a 
minority interest, has said in the past he would take the case to federal 
court if the dqpartment turned down the certification request An 
administrative law judge who oversaw the hearings recommended the 
department reject the ATX application. 

For the Record 

ITT Cmpi bought an 80 percent stake in the Delco Chassis Division of 
General Moiras Corp.’s Automotive Components Group for $375 mil- 
lion. (Bloomberg) 

General Motors’ Hngbes Electronics Cora, will combine its three 
aerospace businesses into a single company caned Hughes Aerospace and 
Electronics Co. (Knight-Ridder) 



WORLD STOCK MARKETS 




Agencp franco Fr» 


Amsterdam 



6*80 

66» 

ACF Hold ra 

4*40 

4670 

Aegon 

94X0 


Ahold 

49.10 

48X0 

Ak» Nobel 

NA 


AMEV 

76X0 

77.10 

Bols-Wessanen 

41X0 


CSM 

■ '8 

m 

D5M 

lr'” ![■ . 1 

Elsevier 

i*-. lr.->, 1 

Fafcker 

mi' 1 

ki ’Ll 


51x0 

fsij 

HBG 

3085D 

308 

Hetaeken 


mi 


5*20 

56 


76X0 

//JO 

iHCCaland 

40X0 

42 

Inter Muel lor 

82 

82X0 


80X0 

80 JO 

KLM 

47 JO 

48 

KNPBT 

45 

4*30 

Nsdlktyd 

63 

6230 

Oce Grlrrten 

81X0 

B5J0 

Prtchoed 

49.90 

60 

Philips 

51.10 

51 


7270 

/Wl) 


120JD 121X0 


40X0 

*0X0 

Roltaco 

121.90 12280 


9*40 

94 

Rural Dutch 

189X0 190X0 

Stork 

4690 

4*70 


197X0 200.10 

Van Ornmeren 

49.10 

49 JO 

VNU 

178X0 17270 


in 

109 



Brussels 


AG Fin 

2400 

2400 

Anted 

4480 

4270 


2280 

i -1 

Bekaert 

23600 23700 

Cocker in 

189 

186 

Cobepa 



Del ha lie 



Eledrabel 



GIB 


u 

G8L 



Gevokrf 

KredlettranK 


lii 1 

Petroflna 

10100 10150 

Poworfln 

Royal Beige 

31K 

5430 

3150 

5400 


8340 

8450 

Sac Gen Beta taue 2670 


Soltna 

15000 15000 

Sotvay 


Tract ebel 

10000 loom 

UCB 


Unkra Mlnlere 

2600 

2595 

Carreul Stock Index : MJ7J8 
Provtoire : 7469X8 


Frankfurt 

AEG 17016950 

A lton* HOM 2553 2554 

A Kona 605 615 

Astio (050 1070 

BASF 3165031950 

Bara*- 373X0 379 

Boy. Hvpa bank 46146350 
Bar VUnM 4924 97 JD 
BBC 695 705 

BHF Bank 440 449 

B4AW mSO 824 

COta moribon k 355-5035750 

Continental 28080291X0 

Daimler Beni 85SI66J0 

Oeaysso 521 526 

D1 Babcock 27680 279 JO 

Deutsche Bank 7905079580 

Daufttot Ml 570 

Drautaer Bank 400 402 

FekfmueMe 347 346 

F Kruno Hoesch 20420450 
Horaener 348 354 

Henkel 6308053950 

HOCtltM 1060 10S2 

Hoechst 323.7D329.18 

Hotonrtonn 885 910 

Hartm 228JD 228 

IWKA 392 393 

KallSalz 147 148 

Koretadl 563 569 

Kauftwf 491 492 

KHD 140.10 140 

Kkwckner Werkel36XQ 140 

Undo 675 877 

Lutthonsa 204203X0 

MAN 421X043680 

Mo ra n s i noun 41650419X0 

Metal Igesell 30819650 

Muench Rueck 3200 3205 

Porsche 796 816 

Pmmog 461X046550 

PWA 2195022250 

RWE 43844650 

RMIntnetall 313 321 

Schorl™ 1057 1049 

SEL 43040050 

Siemens ovs utt 

Thmen 26550269X0 

Vortq 35736050 

veter 48530 **C 

VEW 370 383 

VJog 4455044550 

Volkswagen 4905049930 

Welkj 873 M0 

tsuatw? 


Markets Closed 

The stock markets 
in Helsinki Madrid, 
Sao Paulo and Stock- 
holm were closed 
Thursday for the holi- 
day. 


Hong Kong 

3J75 33X5 
1060 11X0 
39J5 4050 
40 4080 
11X0 12 

14.90 15.10 
3 52 

42 43X5 
42 4350 
19X0 19.40 
2160 22 
2260 22X0 
2160 21.90 
87 M-ta 

&8 "a 

10X0 10X0 
3150 3250 
24X0 2560 

S » 

27 27X0 
15 15.10 
11 10.90 
2290 23.10 
2660 27.90 
5350 55 

460 
5250 55 

11 JO U.io 
148 350 
»X0 30X5 
1110 12J0 
11-40 1150 
9029.91 


Bk East Asia 
Caftmv Pacme 
Cheung Kong 
China Light Pwr 
Dairy Farm Infl 

Hang Lung Dev 

Hong 5eng Bonk 
Henderson Land 
HK Air Eng. 

HK China Gas 
HK Electric 
HK Land 
HK Realty Trust 
H5BC Holdings 
HK Shaito Hits 

HK Telecomm 

HK Ferry 
Hutch Whampoa 
Hvsan Dev 
Jordtae MoHl 
J arm no StrHId 

Kowloon Motor 

Mandarin Orient 

Miramar Hotel 

New world Dev 

SHK Props 
Stelux 
SwIroPocA 
Tal Cheung Prps 
TVE 

Wharf HoM 
Wing On Co Inti 
Wlnsar ind. 




Johannesburg 

AECI Z1 2080 

Altech 92 93 

Anglo Amer 202 200 

Barlows 28X5 29X5 

Blwuor 680 750 

Buffets 4750 48 

DO Beers. 102 v> 

Dr l et ante In 54X5 5350 

Gencar 9.10 9.15 

GFSA 97 95 

Harmony 36 2450 

HlghveM Steel 23 2350 

Ktaat 4525 44 

NedbankGrp 2680 m<bi 

Ranatonteln 46X5 45 

. 87 B450 


46 4550 

21X5 22 

Welkom 42 46 

Western Deep 187 iai 

494653 


Runlet _ 

SA Brews 0180 81 

St Helena -- - - 


London 


Abbey Nafl 

4X5 

4X7 

Allied Lyons 

219 

250 

Arto Wtogtas 
Argyll Group 

2X4 

2X3 

Z8S 

251 

Asa Brit Foods 

537 

5X3 

BAA 

10 

10X5 

BAe 

683 

4X3 

Bank Scotland 

IJl 

1.9? 

Barclays 

224 

228 

Boss 

5X1 

533 

BAT 

657 

4X6 

BET 

127 

l.to 

Blue Circle 

337 

223 

BOC Group 

7.17 

7X7 

Boots 

5X5 

210 

Bawrater 

4X8 

60 

BP 

250 

3X8 

Bril Airways 

60S 

612 

Brit Gas 

202 

3X4 

Bril Steel 

1X2 

1J9 

Brit Telecom 

3X3 

297 

BTR 

3X1 

359 

Cable Wire 

434 

4X7 

Cadttury Sen 

4X4 

4X4 

Caradan 

3X5 

272 

Coats Viralla 

229 

236 

Communion 

*31 

568 

Courtoulds 

534 

222 

ECC Group 

4X3 

680 

Enterprise OH 

296 

4X1 

Eurotunnel 

217 

5.15 

Fftons 

1X8 

1JO 

Forte 

158 

259 

GEC 

297 

292 

GenlAcc 

6J0 

*12 

; Glaxo 

299 

4JK 

Grand Met 

651 

4X9 

GRE 

1JV 

TXOi 

Guinness 

667 

6*6 

GUS 

*05 

5X8 ; 

Hanson 

ZJU 

2X7 ! 

HIllsdQwn 

1 JO 

1X8 

HSBC Hldgs 

131 

7X0 

ICI 

7 JO 


incncoM 

217 

212 

Klngflsder 

5X6 

268 


Ladhroke 
Land Sec 
La parte 
Lasmo 

Legal Gen Grp 
Uavds Bank 

Marks Sp 
ME PC 
Non Power 
NatWest 
NlfiWst Vltotar 


1.94 

628 

760 

120 

457 

588 


1.90 

628 

755 

123 

464 

560 

611 


467 448 


P BO 
pnktagton 
PdwerGen 
Prudential 
Rank Ora 
Red land 
Reed lull 
Reuters 
RMC Group 
Rolls Rovce 
Rothmn (unit) 
Raval Scot 

P-TZ 

Satasburv 
Scot Nbwcos 
S cot Power 


459 

5^2 

645 

693 

1JSI 

5X9 

3X5 

3X7 

5X8 

822 


458 

467 

5X4 

666 

698 

1X8 

8X2 

3JJB 

3X2 

523 

8X7 


1955 19.92 

9X6 9X7 


Severn Trent 

Shell 

State 

Smith Nephew 
StnllhKItae B 
Smith (WH) 

Sun Alliance 

Tate & Lyle 

Tosco 
Thom EMI 
Tomkins 
TSB Grow 
Unilever 
Utd Biscuits 
Vodafone 
Wor Loan 3 Vj 
W ellcome 
Whttaread 
Williams HOss 

Willis corraon 

F.T. 38 lodes 

mF* 


1, 

3X4 

4X7 

821 

3XS 

5.19 

614 

1.14 

5X1 

658 

592 

1X8 

3X2 

5X2 

323 

440 

Z13 

1061 

246 

2. M 


1X4 

X95 

4.10 

8X1 

3X5 

5J8 

4 

1.18 

S61 

685 

565 

1X9 

3X4 

52D 

328 

4X5 

an 

1040 

247 

276 


10.15 10.18 

3-32 3X0 

5.16 820 

4530 44X8 
1X6 5X1 

619 513 

3X8 3X8 

2X4 226 


Milan 

.Braica Comm 5800 5705 

Boston! 8511 84X5 

Benetton group 27990 26500 

□do ha. — 

CIS 2417 2357 

CrWttol 2600 2465 

Enldie m 2860 2840 

Fortin 1910 1843 

FjritaRbP 821 831 

FlatSPA 5605 5340 

Finmeccanica 2360 2200 

C^nerall 42575 40950 

FI 22800 21*00 

Dalcem 14300 13400 

iiaisas sra 5525 

ItalmqMllore 43000 40500 

yedtabanca 1*850 1595a 

Mantedbon 1409 1378 

Olive til 2650 2570 

Pirelli 6900 4600 

RAS 29000 27150 

Rtaascentc 115D0 11Z70 

Saloem 14H 

sera Paolo Tortna 10900 10700 
SIP 4797 4612 

SME 3945 3810 

Snla y>on 3130 

IK* 10 36*00 35900 

SPeT 5750 5500 

Toro Aral RISP 31020 28850 

rieiWUi I ISM 


Montreal 

Atoon Atomtaum 30» 31 

jaaas" 1 “ssss 
ggr B 

uncoai3 ru 7% 

Dominion Text A 1 7% 
Donohue A 17 27Vj 

{S55nk'Sl5i+, "S 21 =^ 

Mall Bk Canada vh 9ig 
Power Corn. jnvh im 

ssssSi ^ B 

Wk. n A 

KtegtottlngrailtoMI 


Parts 


Accor *93 70S 

Air LhmMe 816 803 

Alcatel AJ strum 666 655 

A*a 1293 1297 

Boncnir* I del 553 550 

BIC 1355 7347 

BNP 2568025080 

Bauyguss 694 69* 

BSN-GO 835 837 

Carrefour 4000 4031 

«J>. 743X0 244 

Coras 117.40 13B 

Charaeure 7411 7400 

aments Franc 377X0 379 


OoeePrav. 

Out) Med 4104092 

Ell-Ajutfalne 370 378 
EM-Sanofl 982 1002 

Euro Disney 32X5 3235 
Gen. Eon 2600 2592 

Havra 44| *49 70 

I metal 5BB 580 

L ctcrge Coppee 
Legntad 3900 59*0 

Lyon. Eaux 568 580 

Oreat ILT 115 1181 

L.VXILH. 847 839 

Matra-Hachette 133 IV 
Mlchelln B 249 249J0 

Moulinex 13*50 Ig 

Part has 435J0 434X0 

Pechtaev Inti 192192X0 

Peraod-Rtcord 383 3K 
Peugeot 557 wo 

Pr Intern ps (Au) 950 915 

Rodkrtectmkjuo 580 582 

Rh-Poutrac A 142 140.10 
Raff. St. Louts 1701 1708 
Redoute (Lot 890 8*0 

Saint Goto In 6M 644 
S^B. 5T1 BD 

Ste Generate 630 633 

Suez 313X0 JI3X0 

Thomson-CSF 16610 164 

Total 302J0 29930 

tiff 1 * 


Singapore 

as 7XS 7XS 

City Dev. 6X0 680 

DBS 71X0 1 1X0 

Fraser Ncave 1680 17^ 
Geatlng 15.10 15X0 

Golden Hope PI 2X1 2X3 
Haw par 3.16 1X6 

Hume Industries *90 488 

inchcape 6W 3 

Keooel 930 laio 

KLKepoog 2XD 2X0 

Lum Chang 188 187 
Malayan Banks 8.10 8X0 
OCBC 17X0 11^0 

OUB 7.10 7X0 

OUE 6X5 655 

SvmtxTYYtmo 10X0 1130 
Shanortki 488 583 

Slme Da-try 388 350 

SLA 7X0 7 JO 

S'pore Land 5X0 5X0 

SYrare Press 13X0 13.90 
Stag Steamship 050 M2 
Staore Telecomm 140 3X8 
Straits Trading 3X8 3X6 
UOB 9X5 9.90 

UOL 1X8 1X6 


Sydney 

Amcor 9X9 939 

ANZ 4X5 690 

BHP 1648 167* 

Boral 3X0 3X8 

Bougainville 0X8 0J0 

Cotes Mrar 670 685 

Comalco 5J3S 5X2 

CRA 1666 16J0 

CSR 6*3 680 

Fosters Brew 1X0 1X0 

GoodmrajPleld tja 138 

ICI Australia IttJO 1052 

Magellan 2x5 2X5 

MIM 2.98 3X6 

N PI A ral Bank 11X8 11X8 

News Carp 8,95 9 JO 

Nine Network 5 4JO 

HBraknhHUI 3X5 3X0 

Poc Dunlop 5 il* 

Pionee r Inn 250 5 

Nm ray Pa srtdon 2X0 ZT5 

OCT R eso ur ces 1X8 1x0 

Santos 3X6 3X3 

TNT 2-C3 

Wmdem Mining 7.12 731 

WgtoacBonk'no 6 B 


Tokyo 

Akai Efecti 403 4911 

Asohl Chemical *72 05 


CtoeePrev. 


Asahl Glass 
Bank of Tokyo 
Brtdsestane 

Canon 

Casio 

Dal Nippon Print 
Dahvo House 
Dalwa Securities 
Fanuc 
Full Bank 
Full Photo 
Fulltsu 
HitacM 
Httochl Cottle 
Hondq 
ito Yokado 
Itochu 

Japan Airlines 
Kallma 
KareaJ Power 
KcnnasaU Sleel 
KTr in Brewery 
Komatsu 
Kubota 
Kyocera 
Matsu Elec Inds 
Matsu Elec Wks 

Mitsubishi Bk 
Mitsubishi Kasef 
Mitsubishi Elec 
Mitsubishi Hev 
Mitsubishi Carp 
Mitsui and Co 
Mltsukashl 
Mitsumi 
NBC 

NGK Insulators 
Nlkka Securities 
NlDccn Kogaku 
Nippon Oil 
Nippon Steel 
Nippon Yusen 
Nissan 
Nomura Sec 
NTT \ 

Olympus Optical 
Pioneer 
Ricoh 

Sanyo Elec 

ihl 

sanv 

Sumitomo Bk 
Sumitomo Cheat 
Sumi Marine 
Sumitomo Metal 
Tatsel Cotp 
TU stto Marine 
TakedaChem 
TDK 
Tallin 

Tokyo Marine 
Tokyo Elec Pw 
Toppan Printing 
Torav Ind. 
Toshiba 
Toyota 

Yamcfchl Sec 
a: * JtXL 




Che*n 


Toronto 


Atatw Price 
Agnlco Eagle 
Air Canada 
Alberta Energy 
Am^Bornck Res 

8k Nova Scotia 
BC Gas 
BC Telecom 
BF Realty HOs 

Bramalea 
Brunswick 
CAE 

ZS?” 

CrararttatPaeinc 21JJ 

Cantor 45V. 45Vi 

Cora 63S 4JS 

CL Ind B W W 

Jnepies 610 hi. 

Comlrtco 20W 

Conwest Expi 23 22Vt 

Denison Min B O.T1 0.10 


17U 1714 
17VS 17 

34^2 3+7? 

50 499k 
279* 271e 
154k 15+. 

aSJ %£ 

680 H*Q. 


Dickenson Min A 

Dcfasca 

DylexA 

Echo Bay Mines 
Equity Silver A 
FCA Inti 
Fed ind A 
Fletcher Chall A 
FPI 
Gentro 
GokJCorp 
Gull Cdo Res 
Hees Inti 
Hernia Gld Mines 
Hodtager 

Horsham 
Hudson's Bay 
Imasco 
Into 

inlerprov pipe 


Latratt 
LobtawCo 
Mackenzie 
Magna Inti A 
MoMe Leaf 

Maritime 


MccLean Hunter 
Matson A. 

Noma UxJA 
Noranda jnc . 
Norando Forest 
Norcen Energy 
N them Telecom 
Nova Ca rp 
Ostrawg 
PogurlnA 
Plocer Dome 
Poco Petroteum 

pwa Cora 

Rayrock 

Renaissance 

rK5s 

fwlTll IR71U 

Roral Bank Can 

Seagram 
See rs Car 
Shell Can 
Sherrttt Gordon 
SHLSystemhse 
Southam 
Spar Aenaoose 
Ste fCQA 
Talisman Energ 
T ecfc B 

Thomson News 
Taranto Domn 
Torslar B 
Trnnsotta Util 
TronsCda Pipe 
Triton Flnl A 


TrtzecA 
Utacora Energy 

tse 


Close Prev. 

lift 9 
22 2291 
0.95 0X0 
181k 17% 
089 090 

3J0 3X5 
79S TV. 
TO* 

670 670 
0JI 0^2 
N.Q. 12* 
195 615 
14* 14Vk 
I3*k 13*. 
I5+. ISM 
19V. 19 

29V. 29% 
3*Vk 37V. 
34V. 33W 
31V. 3IW 
IBM 194k 
214k 214k 
24 Vi 2499 
104k W9s 
65 65M 
1246 13 

23Ml 349k 
8U 8Vr 
16* 1646 
249k 25’a 
64k 64k 

3ffli 244 k 
13 13Mi 
15W 15M 
38V. » 

9% 9V» 

22V. 22 

3X0 3J5 
33?k 33V. 
94k 94s 

1X9 1X7 

1991 19V. 
2746 28 

214k 2IW 
63Vl 84f> 
274k 27 

12V. N.Q. 
7W 741 
384k 38 Vi 
79k 8 

38W 38V: 
124k 1246 
9Vk 94k 
199S 19% 

179k 179k 

84k BVt 
29M 3<M 
2544 NX 

174k 17W 
21 'A 204k 
2346 NA. 
144k 141k 
IBVk NJQ. 
44k 645 
1744 N-O. 
0X7 NI3. 
1X0 1X0 


WHi^S 


Zurich 

Adta Inti B 225 22S 

Aiusutose B new 619 *34 

BBCBrwnBavB 1172 1180 

^S5SS. B B m 9,0 

Elektraw B 

Richer B 
Interdtsoount B 
JeimoT B 
Lands Gyr R 
Moevenpick B 
Nestle R 


Pert Ik. Buehrle R 1 153 



KW B 

RocntHdoPC 

Sofra Rsputttic 

Sandaz B 
Schindler B 

Sober PC 1Hua 

swTra ntonas b 2170 2150 

SwteBnk Corps 40* 409 

Swtoe Relnsur R sss 591 

Swtoah- R 750 770 

UBS B 1183 1197 

Winterthur B tLA. 73o 
Zurich Ass B NA — 

HHSSRW 


To subscribe in Germany 

just call, toll free, 

0130 84 85 85 


UbSb futures 


Via Anoaoied Frau 


Season Season 

High Low 


Open High Low Case Chg CkUnt 


Season Seasrai 


Grains 


WHEAT (CBOT) SA09bonMTwn-<aawsnrBuUvi 
177 300 May 94 IX 131 317 3XWt_CX3 16X74 

U6 Z96 A494 3X7 138 121 323^—0X5 2Z1M 

357V 3X3 Sep W 3J9W 3X0 3X4 12SM.— UX5Y. 3X9* 

3X5 3X9 Dec 94 3X8 3J8<k 3X3>- 133^-tUS 1 .-. 6911 

15*Vi 334 Mar 95 3X5>k-0XSU 130 

3X5 31*^ May 95 135*»-O05’A I 

347V ill Jut 95 3X34. 3X» 3J0 3X0 —OX* 57 

Est. sales 14X00 WCtTv SrteS 5JD7 
WteiaaenW 47X53 off 993 
WHEAT OCBOT) uakukmiTvn-aannrlMnl 
1799} ua May 94 134 135% 3309: 3X1 'A— 0X3'* 8.925 

3X5 2X7 Jill 94 127V. 3X8 3X3 IXK-XXPA 11,918 

XSSVk 3X2 W S«P 94 3X9 3X9 3X4 3X4 -OQStt 3X63 

3X0 11 TV} Dec 94 3X5% 3X7 3X0 3JOVJ-OX5V 1X8? 

3XSV. 3X3 Mar 95 3J6 Ui 132 332 -QX5V» 314 

Est. rates SLA. Wed's, sate 6233 
Wed's open W 25J® UP 222 
CORN (CBOT) UDObunMnim-iHnMrkiM 
11416 13816 May 94 2X31i 2X34* 17216 17446 -UP* IB7X0S 

3.16ft 141 JulM 2X6U 2X646 17916 17946— 0X7V. 11HJ69 

19216 140 16 Sep 94 1734* 173 2X7S 2X8U-0X5 23M9 

17346 234 ft Dec 94 U9?ft 2J4)V. 155W 156 -0X4 64X15 

179ft 2J3ftMcr95 2X6 2X416 2X716 2X3% —003 6*47 

2X2 2X9ftMav9Sl70 170 166ft 2X*16-0J3Vi 3*2 

183% 17C6jUlt5 17146 2JJ 2X9 2X9V)— 003 IJS9 

158ft lXP*Dec95 150ft 151 14946 ISO -O01 984 

Est sate 75X00 W«fS. Soto 29X92 
wed's open H 314X90 off 1849 
SOYBEANS (OCT) jjanBumw™^ 

751 

i94ftXA94 690 
628 Aug 94 6S3 
617 Sep 94 6X2W AX* 

655ft Nov 94 6X9 ~ 

618ft Jan95 654 
6X2 Mar 95 6X9 
633 May 95 
&X216 Ad 95 6X1 

SXlft Nov 95 61* 

Est. rate *0X00 Wed's, soles 30.1*4 
Wed-sopanlrt 1J4X02 oft 2290 
SOYBEAN MEAL (CBOT} loo taM-O04orsp«r Pon 
mm 18650 May 94 195X0 195X0 19190 193JO -2X0 36931 

190X0JUI94 195X0 I9SJ0 793X0 194X0 -1X0 36»* 

189 JO Aug 94 19600 196X 19320 193X0 -a90 6.W9 

11870 Ste 94 19120 193X0 191X0 192X0 -0X0 5.789 

187.10 Cd 94 191.10 191.10 190L3D 190X0 —1X0 3X79 

4X0 Dec 94 190J0 19U0 189 JO 109X0 —1.10 9.508 

184J0Jan95 1«2D 190X0 l»J0 T89X0 — JJ0 914 

187X0MV9S 19100 192X0 191 J* I9IJ» —0-5 94 

188X0May95 19270 19270 191X0 191X0 —1X0 44 

EsLsdes 20X00 Wetfs.sries 8X72 
Wad's open irt 71X00 up ST 


7X0 

7JS 

609ft 

7J7V, 

670 

673ft 

670 

*75 

650ft 


ndplmaura- A*Mn 

iparbtotial 


4X9ft 

680ft 

*8146-007% 5220) 

*91 

6X3 ft 

*8Sft— 4UI716 51X13 

*S4ft 


*77 -OLDTft 

8364 

6*4 


*srft-ons 

670* 

*50 

4X5 

*43% -004 

31X83 

*55 

*50 

650ft -OXS 

low 

*59 

654ft 

654 ft— 006 

*12 



*58 -003% 

48 

*ilV6 

*58 

*58 -0X7% 

■x 

*1746 

*13 

*15 -003% 

1.117 



Law 

Open 

Mgh 

Low 

Ctee 

Chg OpJnt 

Est sate 8,210 VlWssde 

7310 




wertsepenln) 57X89 

Off SV4 




SUGAR-WORLD 11 (NCSE3 

lUHN-aW 

Prtfc. 


nc 

U0Mav94 

1133 

11.11 

11X8 

11.96 

+0X1 51440 

1250 

9.1 5 Jul 94 

1115 

1123 

1114 

1122 

+005 37X39 

11.7! 

9.4700 94 

11X4 

1138 

71X4 

1137 

+O09 3IXS 

11X2 

9. 1 7 MtX 95 

1U 

nx* 

1133 

11X3 

+0X7 14X06 

11X8 

1057 May 95 

11J6 

11X0 

1135 

11X7 

+0X7 1.920 

11X3 

1057 Jul 95 

1135 

1135 

1135 

11X0 

+0X7 U*5 

11X0 

10570085 

11.40 

11X0 

1134 

1137 

+007 334 


Est. sates 9J00 Wed's, sntes 9XM 
WesTs open tat 136949 oft 38 
COCOA (KC5E) 10 manic km- lew ton 

13*8 978 May 94 1136 1158 1136 1148 *2 VJ11 

1365 999 Jut 04 117D 1184 1166 1179 >3 26492 

1377 HB0Sep9* 1195 1200 1195 1205 -4 9X97 

1389 1041 Dec 94 1231 1244 1231 1238 *3 6X25 

1382 1 077 Mar 95 12*5 1275 12S7 12(7 —1 9.710 

1400 1 11 1 May 95 1295 E29I 1291 r292 4 1 5334 

1487 1Z2SJUI9S 1314 4l 2X34 

1350 1275 Sep 95 13JS +1 711 

1437 1338 Dec 95 1364 t3 320 

Est sates 6834 Wad's, sales 9X60 
Wed's open irt 86X41 off 894 
ORANGE JUKE (NCTN) l6raCfca.-art.PWfc. 

13SX0 r>J»Mov*4 109X0 109X0 10*75 107 JS —2.15 7721 
135X0 103X0 Jut 94 112X0 112X3 10»X0 110L.1J — 2J0 5,918 

134X0 105JDSs>94 11600 11635 11235 112X0 —1X5 2X00 

134X0 HEXQNOV94 111X5 -IXS I.W3 

13200 10150 Jan 9S 11430 11630 HU 11275 -135 

1313$ 10*00 Mar 95 (1600 114X0 11500 11535 —075 

Est. ides NA Wed's, sales 1X40 
Wed's open W 19X54 off 96 


Season Season 
Htoh Low 


Open HWi Low Cose Chg Op. tat 


89-30 9IM* — 08 


116 


Metals 

Hi GRADE COPPC8 DCMIO BJPK-i 


2X00 

223X0 

710X0 

20*00 

209X0 

200X0 

19400 

193X0 


30X5 

3970 

29.30 

28X1 

27X0 

27JB 

26X5 

7*65 

2640 

26X0 


71 JO May 94 29.15 
ZIXSJul 94 28.95 

71 AS Aug *4 28X5 
22X0 Sea 94 27XS 
23.10Oct94 37.12 

0X0 Dec 94 2*50 
22X5 Jot 95 2635 
25X0 Mar 93 2619 
2530 Mov 95 25.95 
2630Jul9S 25X7 

Est. sides 22X00 Wed's, sate 12X10 
« 100X83 Off 40* 


29.15 

0074 

2837 

-020 3*154 

29X0 

2835 

2831 

-024 29X00 

2035 

2030 

2637 

—0.14 

9,295 

2005 

2735 

27X8 

-aoo 

BX 4 * 

27.15 

3*85 

3*87 

-015 

7X25 

3634 

3421 

2*44 

—007 OJO 

2635 

2630 

3*30 


1X0 

2*19 

2*10 

2*17 

+002 

IS 

25.96 

2295 

25X4 

-004 

11 

2290 

25X7 

25X0 


1 


Livestock 

CATTLE (CMER) 46entts.-aennparfc 
0275 7370 Apr 94 7*30 7675 7627 76X2 

7527 7) 35 Jun 94 7195 MJO 73.92 hL» 

7X37 7UDAUBM 72JS 72JS 77J7 72X7 

7+07 71 J7 0094 73X7 7372 73X7 730 

7630 72X5 Dec 94 73X5 73.93 7175 7370 

7435 7XMFet)95 73X0 73J0 73XS 73X5 

7*10 73J0 Apr 95 7650 7670 76 SI 7470 

Est. sate 11X19 Wed's, sate 14X01 
wed's open tat eijnt off 532 
FSBDER CATTLE (CHER1 »*"te, ; crarape;fc 
0635 79 J2 Mar 94 01X2 0175 81X7 8172 

0609 79 JB APT 94 0970 1170 RL72 ta.10 

04X0 7870 May 94 2M! 

8X00 79X5 AllO 9* 8130 0 JO ta* 01X7 

8170 79J0Ste94 Utt 81.15 BUD «.15 

8135 7930 Od 94 80X0 8075 00X0 0872 

68X0 77X5 Nov 94 80.95 B.lf »75 g.tt 

00.90 79.00 Jan 9* 0035 06B 8835 9035 


♦032 27^*4 
*035 26247 

♦ 817 12X78 

♦ 0J7 1039* 
*810 3X53 
*805 1X59 
*810 120 


*805 1302 
,0J5 2J27 
<820 3JX7 
*810 2X49 
+030 » 

+8D SB 

*aaz 2 S 

-805 22 




m 



m 


B-r’— .n+-| 

' 

■ y 1 


f 7 *nN 



' r 

|'v| 

ates 

10 X 5 



• 

0630 

87 J» 

i ' ■ 

. z 


’/T 

■ ■ 

87.15 

101 x 0 

■.-it • - + 



B v ^‘l 

0735 

§ r m 



’L- 

W - ■ 

8750 

1 ' fl 





WAS 

107 J 0 


in 

■ > 1 

0930 

87 X 5 

8130 

■ .'1 T| 

■ Y !. ■ 


1215 

9130 


ryi 

1 f ■ 

■ ' ^ 

m 

9135 


1^1 

B '/ ' J 

b v y 1 m 

87.10 

VI 35 

79 . 10 S 9 P 95 




0 &JS 


7230 Oct 95 


B ■ ■ 

B 

B 'r 1 

rir* 



B ■/ ^ M 

■ ■ | ■ 

B A-l 





|>1 

B h ' 1 


WmrxJ 


1 \ 1 

8950 

89 X 5 


Ed. sales NA. Wetfs-sries 22X69 
Wed's open irt 64310 off 3886 
SILVSt (NCMX) AflOMreaeoam par warn. 
5184) Apr 94 


<■825 1X00 
■*030 36398 
+ 830 730 

+830 15X14 
+830 4X17 
+ 0JO 4X9 
+830 
+030 

+ 030 1X56 
+ 030 548 

+030 *44 

+0J0 4*1 

+ai0 290 
+ 830 

+ 830 170 

209 

—0X5 


SB1X 

371XMOV M 

5705 

5795 

s«9 X 

5705 







5005 




371XAHV4 

57SJ 

5B4X 

57X0 

587.7 


5000 

J765 Ste 94 

5800 

S89X 

5795 

5875 



58*0 

3800 Dec 94 

wo 

S95X 

584J 

5918 

+ 168 10X04 


4010 Jan 93 







1 


ri* 1 

604X 

5960 

4013 






6MJ 

4066 




4200 Jul 95 



6100 




56SX 

4938 Ste 95 







624X 

539 J) Dec *5 



620-0 

43 JJ 

* 15X 

WOO 


Jon 9* *29j +i*n 

Est.vOes NA Wed's, sixes 25X40 
Wed'S wen irt 117300 up B04 
FLATMUM 04MOD ennK-ranw royaz. 

428X0 336B0APT94 4164) 42600 411X0 4 Bk ) +11X0 1.900 

471X0 97X0X11 W 471X0 437X0 417X0 42*90 +11.90 19X00 

418X0 30X000 « 42V9 43600 41600 407X0 <11.90 1X4! 

“ “ ----- j lj0 „ 

11X0 83* 


Est. sate 947 Wtfs. Mtel< 
rant's open irt 12X50 off 08 


5192 39.57 Apr 94 4670 4692 4655 4665 

S4J7 «5jS94 52X9 JIM 52X5 SL85 

55J7 4530 Jill 94 S2J0 SL45 SLID H.I7 

53X0 463SAU94 5037 5840 5810 97.17 

Sjs 4tooSw m is jus *612 4*rr 

BX0 3xdS:9€ 4690 47X9 4640 4677 

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EUROPE 


alia 


?rn 


Bank of France 
Lowers Rates, 
Drains Funds 


P r ov<., 






i. * - 


^ Urn* 




Hu r rum 


■ ' Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

T ^5 fiance 

said Thursday that it trimmed 10 

baas points from its key imerven- 
hon rate, which sets the floor for 
foooey market rates, taking it to 5 9 
percent from 6.0 percent. 

- The central bank also drained 
'7.1 billion French francs (SI bil- 
lion) from the interbank money 
t market through securities repur- 

' chase agreements. 

, Although the move is a surprise 
'because the central bank’s mone- 
tary policy council is not scheduled 
to meet for another week, it showed 
that the policy of tracking the 
Bundesbank’s small rate cuts is still 
in place, analysts said. 

I* The cut in the intervention rate 
follows four successive cuts over the 
' past five weeks by the Bundesbank 
to its 14-day repurchase r ate; which 
most recently stood at 5.80 percent 
“ Some analysts said the Bank of 
'France move shows increasing flex- 
ibility on monetary policy. 

V “It’s a very good sign because it 
shows the Bank of France is pre- 
pared to anticipate what is going to 
happen in Germany," said Patrick 
Mange, an economist at Deutsche 
Bank in Paris. 

An analyst at a French bank said 
the latest easing also showed a new 
'flexibility toward the franc. In re- 
cent years, the Bank of France has 


resisted cutting rates when the 
franc has been weak. 

But Jean-Claude Trichet, the 
dank of France governor, has made 
it plain that although the economy 
remains weak, interest rates will be 
kept high enough to protect the 
franc and hold back inflation pres- 
sures. f Reuters, Bloomberg) 

■ Unemployment Jumps 

The Labor Ministry said Thurs- 
day that the number of people out 
of work in France rose 0.2 percent, 
to a record 3,3 12300, in February, 
but the unemployment rate re- 
mained at 123 percent, news agen- 
cies reported 

Since February 1993, the num- 
ber of registered jobless people in 
France has risen by 9.S percent. 

But the government also said the 
pace at which unemployment was 
increasing was slowing. Since Nov- 
ember. the monthly rise in the job- 
less total has been less than 5,000, 
wen below most of 1993, when the 
increases were as much as 45300. 

Unemployment, particularly 
among the young, is one of the 
thorniest issues facing the Conser- 
vative government of Prime Minis- 
ter Edouard Bahadur. 

This week, after nationwide street 
protests, Mr. Bahadur scrapped a 
wage law that allowed employers to 
pay young people less than the mini- 
mum wage. (Reuters, AP) 


Air France Sets Referendum 


Cattpded by Our Staff From Dispatches 

PARIS — Air France's 42,000 employees 
wiB be called on to vote in a referendum 
ending April 1 1 on whether they approve the 
company’s recovery plan, the airline an- 
nounced Thursday. 

The employees will be asked in the referen- 
dum, the largest ever held by a French com- 
pany, whether they would approve a plan 
offered on March 27 by the company. Eight 
unions out of 14 at the airline have not signed 
a framework agreement on the plan suggested 
by management. 

Meanwhile, Air France workers blocked 
runways Tor one hour on Thursday at Orly 
airport, one of the two main terminals serving 
Paris, to protest proposed job cuts and a pay 
freeze. The action, which led to delays for 
several flights, was led by about 200 members 
of the Communist-led General Labor Con- 
federation. 


A new dispute would be damaging to con- 
servative Prime Minister Edouard Bahadur, 
whose inaction during the violent Air France 
strike in October set a pattern for defeats in a 
succession of protests by students, fishermen 
and public-school advocates. 

Air France lost 73 billion francs (SI bil- 
lion) in 1993 and carries total debt of 37 
billion francs. It has blamed the losses on the 
plunge in air travel after the Gulf War and 
price-cutting by competitors. 

The Air France chairman, Christian Blanc, 
who replaced Bernard Attali after last fall's 
debacle, has proposed a three-year recovery 
program to revive the carrier. 

It calls for a salary freeze, 5,000 job cuts 
and a capital increase of 20 billion francs. 
The government, which hopes to maire Air 
France profitable and privatize it, will release 


a large, unspecified sum if employees ap- 
prove the plan. 

The injection of state capital is almost 
certain to conflict with European Union 
competition rules and anger Air France's 
rivals, who have complained about previous 
capital boosts. 

Mr. Blanc has tried to make the job cuts 
through attrition rather than mass layoffs. 

The most contentious pan of the plan may 
be die salary freeze through 1996. Also, all 
promotions will be put cm hold this year and 
will depend on the progress of recovery in 
1995 and 1996. 

Mr. Attalfs plan, which called for 4,000 job 
cuts, provoked protests at both Paris airports 
and in the provinces last year, with angry 
workers virtually shutting down some airports. 
Mr. Balladur refused to support him and Mr. 
Attali resigned. 

(AP, AFP, Bloomberg) 


Investor’s Europe 




Page 11 * 

i 

94 
*7 



Renault Profit Slims, but It Avoids Loss 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

PARIS — Renault SA on Thurs- 
day reported lower profit for 1993, 
but the French automaker was still 
one of the few in its industry to 
avoid a loss in a year of double- 
digit sales declines in Europe, 

Net attributable profit fdl to 
1.07 billion francs ($187 million} 
from 5.68 billion francs a year ear- 
lier but was still much higher than 
many analysts’ forecasts of around 
400 million francs. 

Renault, whose year was marred 
by the rejection of its planned 
merger with the Swedish car maker 
Volvo AB amid protests by Volvo 
shareholders, said it expected im- 


proved results in 1994, although 
Chai rman Louis Schweitzer added, 
u Tliis win depend on the develop- 
ment of the market and prices." 

Same analysts have said Renault, 
which is expected to be sold to pri- 
vate investors on the Paris stock 
market next year, appears well 
placed for earnings growth, having 
brought costs down while altering 
its product mix to concentrate on 
selling its higher-priced cars. 

In addition, its profit for 1993, 
although much summer than in 
1992, contrasted with losses of more 
than SI billion posted by two of its 
biggest European competitors, 
Volkswagen AG and Hat SpA. 


Results last year were helped by 
income from financial items of 537 
million francs, contrasting with a 
loss of 43 milli on francs in that area 
in 1992 

But operating profit crashed to 
609 million francs from 7.73 billion 
francs in 1992 

Renault said the market had al- 
ready shown signs of recovery this 
year and said the bottom of the 
business cycle seemed to have 
been reached in the car and truck 
markets. 

“The debate among car makers 
is now on the shape of the recovery 
curve — will it be slow or sharp?" 
Mr. Schweitzer said. 


He said he expected growth of 2 
percent this year in the European 
car market. Qur sales in Europe fdl 
18 percent in 1993. 

Mr. Schweitzer also said he ex- 
pected an improvement in the re- 
sults of Renault's bus and truck 
arm, Renault Vehicules Industriels. 
But be said the division was still 
expected to have a loss this year 
after a deficit of 1.4 billion francs 
in 1993. 

Renault's consolidated revenue 
fdl 7.8 percait, to 169.8 triffion 
francs, reflecting the drop in sales 
and weak prices. Sales of the auto- 
mobile division fell 93 percent, to 
1302 billion francs, (Reuters, AP) 






Sources: Reuters, AFP 


taumdoad Herald Tribune 


Very briefly: 


France’s Canal Plus Girds for Expansion in Pay Television 


By Jacques Neher 

International Herald Tribune 

PARIS —Appearing to reach a ceiling in 
its home market, Canal Hus SA of France 
said Thursday that it was gearing up for a 
major push into the pay-tdevisian market in 
Europe and outlined plans to launch a Euro- 
pean culture and lifestyle channel for cable 
markets in the Americas and Aria. 

- Meanwhile, a 9 percent rise in 1993 earn- 
-mgs, to 13 billion francs ($210 million), 
’gave Canal Plus a sharp lift on (he Paris 
Bourse. The stock, which closed on 
Wednesday at 976 francs, ahead of the 
earning 

lursday. 


igs report, rose 12 percent, to 988 
francs Thursday. 


To our readers ■» Trance 

IPs never been easier !o subscribe 
and save widi our new 
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Pierre Lescare, who took over as chair- 
man of the pay-television broadcaster in 
February following the resignation of An- 
dre Roussdet, the founder, said that talks 
with Bertelsmann AG were advancing on 
the establishment of a joint venture to 
develop pay- television operations in Eu- 
rope outside France and Germany. 

He said the venture, which might he 
joined by the Spanish media concern Prisa, 
would form “the backbone of our develop- 
ment in Europe over the next 10 years." 

The venture, which Canal Hus and Ber- 
telsmann are aiming to set up by summer, 
would cover programming services and the 
infrastructure to deliver pay programming 
to various European markets in lime for 
the arrival of digital television systems af- 
ter 1995. 

“This will give us breathing room,'’ Mr. 
Lescure said. ‘'With the deregulation of the 
European market, it is very dear that we 
can’t survive alone." 


He called the potential from such a joint 
effort “enormous.” 

The initial accord, signed in February, 
covers Europe, but a company executive 
said that the door would be open to coop- 
eration on markets outside of Europe “on a 
case-by-case b asis .” 

Among the non-European projects that 
could bring the German and French com- 
panies together is Canal Plus's plan to 
develop “global theme channels” that 
would be offered to cable and satellite 
operators around the world. 

Closest to getting launched is a Best of 
Europe package — although a fund name 
has not yet been chosen — that would offer 
18 hours a day of European films, culture 
and lifestyle programs, all presented in 
English or with English subtitles. 

Michel Thoulouze, head of thematic 
channels, said the company next month 
would begin market research in the United 
States to determine the potential demand 


for such a channel, which would be offered 
to able operators as a premium network. 
The channe l could be operational by the 
end of the year. 

He said the same channel, which could 
cost $100 million a year in programming 
alone, could be sold to Asian and South 
American cable or satellite systems. 

‘'There is a real appetite for European 
culture in America, even more than there is 
in Europe," Mr. Thoulouze said. 

He said there would be “no problem" 
financing such a venture, noting that sever- 
al potential backers have already come 
forward. The network, be said, might also 
carry advertising from European compa- 
nies trying to market overseas. He said the 
fashion house Yves Saint Laurent has ex- 
pressed an interest in advertising. 

Meanwhile, Mr. Lescure predicted there 
would be no growth in Canal Plus’s sub- 
scriber base in France in 1994. At the end 
of 1993, the company had 3.7 million sub- 
scribers in France. He said there should be 


some improvement in 1995 as the economy 
strengthened and the company completed 
inxtaliati nn of new decoders. The new 
equipment, he predicted, would force 
many homes now receiving the broadcast- 
er’s mix of films and sports by means of 
pirate decoders to begin paying. 

The company reported that it now had 
103,000 subscribers to its new French satel- 
lite service, and predicted that the number 
would double this year. In Belgium, Canal 
Plus has 150,000 subscribers, in Spain 

768.000, in Germany 755,000 and in Africa 

29.000. 

Overall the company predicted it would 
have 62 mObon subscribers by the end of 
1994, upfrom 5.7 nriffionat theeudof 1993. 

In 1993, the company’s foreign pay- 
ebannd operations lost 1 17 milli on francs, 
a 30 percent improvement from the loss 
reported in 1992 Premier, the German 
service it operates with Bertelsmann, lost 
265 million francs, compared with a loss of 
385 million francs in 1992 ’ 


• Compagme de Samt-Gobam SA, a French construction company, said 
1993 net profit fell 51 percent, to 128 billion francs (S223 million^ while 
Compagme Rnanrifere de Paribas said net profit rose 64 percent, to 1.45 
billion francs. 

• MetaflgeseBschaft AG said the company’s former chairman, Heinz 
Scbimmelbusch, had! filed fraud charges against a boa/d member, Hein- 
rich Goetz, that are being investigated by prosecutors in Frankfurt. The 
company quoted Mr. Goetz as saying the charges were groundless. 

• Russia's inflation fdl to 8 percent in March from 9.9 percent in 
February and 22 percent in January, according to the first depu ty prime 
minister, Oleg Soskovets; Moscow has pledged to cut monthly inflation 
to 7 percent by the end of 1994 to receive a $1 5 billion IMF loan. 

• Italy’s inflation rate was 42 percent annually in March, up from 4.0 

percent in February but unchanged from March 1993, the nation’s 
statistics office said. Bloomberg. AFX. Reuters. AFP 


Optimism at Sodete Generale 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

BRUSSELS — Sorietfc Ghnerale 
de Belgique SA, the biggest Belgian 
company, said Thursday its profit 
rose 40 percent last year, largely 
boosted by asset sales. 

Operating earning * were up a 
more modal 5 percent, but the 
company was optimistic about its 
outlook for this year. 

Net profit rose to 8.68 billion 
francs ($251 million) from 622 Ini- 
lion. while operating income was 
6.43 billion, up from 6.15 billion. 

Soriet£ Gbaknde, which is 61 
percent-owned by Compagnie de 
Suez of France, booked large capi- 
tal gains from selling industrial as- 
sets, notably its 424 percent stake 
in Cimenteries CBR to Heidd- 


berger Zement AG of Germany. 

It also sold 18.4 percent of 
Union Miniere SA, its mining and 
metal refining unit, in an interna- 
tional offering. The two sales raised 
29 3 billion francs. 

Union Minitre, in which So dktb 
Gfinferale maintains a 50.1 percent 
stake, reported on Wednesday a 
loss of 23 billion francs. But affili- 
ates in banking, insurance and util- 
ities, had higher profits. 

The company raised its dividend 
to 85 francs a share from 84, and it 
declared a stock dividend of one 
share for each 10 held. “We wanted 
to give a dear signal about our con- 
fidence in the future." said Etienne 
Davjgnon, the chairman. 

(AFP, Reuters, Bloomberg) 


i 


r 






REPUBLIC OF PERU 


a 

Interbanc 



Commission for 
the Promotion 
of Private Investment 

COPRI 



The Special Committee for the Promotion of Private Investment in Banco Intemacional 
del Peru, appointed by the Government of Peru, through the Commission for the 
Promotion of Private Investment, COPRI, announces the sale of the totality of the 
Peruvian Government’s participation in: 

BANCO INTERNACIONAL DEL PERU S.A. 

0 

Interbanc 

Interbanc has Peru's second largest network of retail units and is the country's fourth 
largest commercial bank in term of assets. 

The tender terms for the international Auction Sale are available at 

COMITE ESPECIAL DE PROMOCION DE LA INVERSION PRIVADA 
EN EL BANCO INTERNACIONAL 

Luis Hidalgo Viacava, President 
Av. Republica de Panama 3055 
Centro Comercial Continental, Of. 20 
Lima 27, PERU 

Telefax: (5 1 1 4) 4 1 -9396 or 4 1 -9424 


For any additional information, please contact 

Credit Commercial de France 

Paris 

Francois Lagr6e 


Sodmer International 
Madrid, Espaiia 
Saiomdn Benatar 


Tel ■ (33D 4070-7040 
Fax: (331)4070-7075 


Tel.: (341)542-2300 
Fax: (341) 547-4719 


CCF/Sodmer-Perfi 

lima 

Guillermo van Oordt 

Tel: (514) 42-9869 
Fax:(514)41-6422 


, j , iepmP nf has been approved by Credit Commercial de France, an authorised 
T ^reon fo^the purposes of Section 57 of the Financial Services Act 1986 (FSA). 


Uma-Peru, March 1994 

THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE 



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Page X2 


NASDAQ 

Thursday’s Prices 

NASDAQ prices as of 3 p.m. New York time. 
This list com pi lad by the AP, consists ot the 1 .000 
most traded securities in iBrms of dollar value, it is 
updated twice a year. 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY* APRIL 


1994 


wen u>w stock 


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\ 









For 

investment 

information 

Read 

the MONEY REPORT 
every Saturday 
in the 1HT 


For information on how to list your fund, fax Simon OSBORN at (33-1) 46 37 21 33. 


The conference program 
will highlight the investment 

opportunities in 

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region 


> s economic revival. 



FOR FURTHER 

1 zitin America 

information ON THE 

A New Investment Partner 

CONFERENCE: 


Brenda Hagerty 

LONDON - JUNE 9 - 10 • 1994 

International Herald Tribune 

wmiitnaii 

63 Long Acre, London WC2E 9JH, England 

HcrallQE&ribunc Q 

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Tel: (44 71)836 4802 

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FUTURES: Rules Have Changed Since Time of Mrs . Clinton’s Payoff 




Continued from Page 9 
to protect themselves from the 


swings in prices that result from 
unpredictable crop yields. 

To be sure they would have 


wheat at a price they could afford. 

Hour millers signed contracts to 


Hour millers signed contracts to 
buy grain long before the crop was 
harvested. If a drought produced a 
short crop, raising prices, the flour 
mill would come out ahead. But if 
there was a bumper crop and prices 
plunged, the farmer who had sold 
wheat futures was better off than 
the one who had waited to sell after 
the harvest. 


By the early 20th century indi- 
vidual ha gg lin g over hand-tailored 
contracts ~Ead evolved into orga- 
nized exchanges where buyers and 
sellers gathered to trade sta ndar d 
units — a carload of grain, 50.000 
pounds of cotton, 20 tons of frozen 
bacon. 

Less than 20 years ago. traders 
figured out that if they could trade 
futures contracts for agricultural 
products, they could also trade fu- 
tures for anything whose price 
might fluctuate — gold yet to be 
mfnwt, o2 still in the ground, yen. 
marks, even U.S. Treasury bonds 


whose interest rates would not be 
set until they were issued in the 
next year. 

Hillary Clinton was malting her 
fortuitous foray into cattle futures 
when cattle were the biggest busi- 
ness at the Merc, with 26,000 con- 
tracts a day traded, accounting for 
half the daily volume. Volume now 
is around 19.000 contracts a day. 
but that is only 3 percent of the 
Merc's business because of the ex- 
plosive growth in other futures con- 
tracts. 


These days, the Merc’s biggest 


business is flnandal futures con- 
tracts, which allow businesses to 
protect themselves against fluctua- 
tions in interest rates and currency 
rates by contracting now for Trea- 
sury bills, marks or financial in- 
struments they will need in the fu- 
ture. 

Constantly seeking new ways to 
'control the risk of fluctuating 
prices, the futures markets are 
steadily starting trading in new 
products. Just this week, the Chica- 
go Board of Trade announced it 
would start to offer contracts in 
recycled plastic and glass garbage- 


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KVTJERWATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 1, 1994 


Page IS ” 


“**Q * 


(Siting Problem Loans, 
S&P Cuts 3 Japan Banks 

L. n “■ 


ASIA/PACIFIC 


1 


' T, 


v-^ 

r « ' M * 

9fr 

■ ‘ 2 ^ 
-- ' 

- 4 ^'. 


Bloomberg Businas Nm$ 

TOKYO — Standard St Poor's 
.Cosrp. reduced its credit ratings on 
gfrree of Japan’s largest commercial 
banks Thursday, reflecting concern 
over non performing loans. 

S&P downgraded about $9.5 bfl- 
tion of debt at Sumitomo Bank I.id 
$7.2 billion at Mitsubishi Bank Ltd. 
and S32 billion at Bank of Tokyo. 
S&P bad placed the banks' credit 
ratings on review March 15. along 
with those of Sanwa Bank, which 
was not downgraded. 

- Among the downgrades, senior 
debt of Sumitomo was lowered to 
A-plus from AA-minus, and hs 
commercial paper was cut to A-l 
from A-l -pins. 

■ The mew senior rating denotes a 
class of securities that are consid- 
ered to have strong capacity for re- 
payment but are more susceptible to 
changes in the economy or the issuer 

than double- A-rated debt The 
short-term rating of A-l represents 
Commercial paper that has very 
strong safety features for investors. 

Sumitomo has problems with re- 
structured loans made to Itoman 


Cap, a trading company and for- probably weD over twice the rcport- 
jper member of the Sumitomo group ed amount according to credit ana- 
^ absorbed by another af fill- lysts and economists in Tokyo. 

SSfrIS 1 P e P rediclcd The 13.76 trillion yen represent 

loans 10 Problem only nonperfonning loans, those 

a™ ? ai ^. Sumitomos profit- on which interest oavmems have 


«*ui5 ana said Sumitomo's profi 
abihty was low In relation to the su 
of expected loan losses. 

Mitsubishi Bank's senior debt rat- 
mg was lowered to AA-minus from 
AA, but the bank's short-term debt 
rating will remain A-l. S&P said. 
Mitsubishi’s bad loans, which are 
mostly tied to real estate and con- 
struction projects, are growing with 
Japan's still weak economy, said 
Shinano Morita. an S&P analyst 

Bank of Tokyo’s senior debt rat- 
ing was lowered to A-plus from 
AA-minus and its short-term rating 
to A-l from A- 1-plus. 

Bank of Tokyo lent money to 
leasing and bousing loan companies 
that have been hurt by the collapse 
of Japan’s speculative “bubble” 
economy, according to Yoshio 
Shima, another S&P anal yst 

While Japan's top 21 banks have 
said they have about 13.76 trillion 
yea C$133 billion) in bad loans on 
their books, the actual burden is 


on which interest payments have 
been suspended for more than six 
months. Other doubtful loans 
would bring the figure to about 30 
triDion yen, according to David 
Threadgold, a financial analyst at 
Barclays de Zoete Wedd. 

■ Mitsubishi Aids Affiliates 

Mitsubishi Bank said Thursday 
it has worked out a 91 billion yen 
bailout plan for two of its uonbank 
subsidiaries beset by bod loans, 
Agence France- Presse reported. 

The bank said it waived repay- 
ment of loans wrath 13 billion yen 
from Diamond Mortgage Co. and 
Diamond Factors Co., reducing the 
amount of its loans to them to 330 
trillion yen. Mitsubishi also assumed 
74 trillion yen in losses incurred by 
the two units in sales of loans to a 
credit-purchasing company. 

Mitsubishi is ihe second Japanese 
commercial bank, after Tokai Bank, 
to bad out finance affiliates. 


Patten Backs Broadcast Freedom 


Rouen 

HONG KONG — Governor Chris Patten has made 
♦ thinly veiled attack on Rupert Murdoch and Ted 
Turner, saying freedom of speech cannot be curtailed 
for short-term commercial expediency. 

“It would be the most seedy of betrayals for broad- 
en freedom of speech in one country but to amaifit 
elsewhere for reasons of inevitably short-term com- 
mercial expediency," he said in a speech made in 
Dublin and released in Hong Kong on Thursday. 

' Patten did not name Mr. Murdoch, who owns the 
Hong Kong-based satellite broadcaster STAR TV and 
many other international media outlets through News 
Corp., or Mr. Turner, whose Turner Broadcasting 
System Inc. owns the Cable News Network. 


But his remarks were dearly aimed at both men, who 
have been accused of kowtowing to Beijing in hopes of 
being allowed to tap the lucrative Chinese market. 

“Anyone who enjoys the privilege of publishing and 
broadcasting in open societies should demonstrate 
their unshakable belief in the universality of free 
speech should they ever seek to broadcast in societies 
that are closed,” Mr. Patten said in a speech made 
Wednesday night. 

“Would they accept the censor’s scissors in Europe 
or North America? No. They should not accept them 
elsewhere either.” 

STAR TV announced last week it planned to elimi- 
nate the news channel supplied by the BBC from its 
broadcasts to Hong Kong and China, riling commer- 
cial reasons. 


Confusion Reigns 
At Debut of China 
Currency Market 


Roam 

SHANGHAI — Financial 
officials in Shanghai are joking 
that the opening of the dry’s 
new foreign exchange market 
should be postponed until 
Monday from Friday, which is 
April Fool’s Day. 

Such is the confusion sur- 
rounding China’s leap into in- 
terbank currency trading that 
Western bankers are not sure 
whether the officials might be 
serious. 

U 1 was told they did not want 
to open on April Fool’s Day,” a 
foreign banker said in Shanghai 
on Thursday. "In a way its a 
joke, but it’s not very funny." 

The new China Foreign Ex- 
change Trading Center, based 
in Shanghai, was originally de- 
signed to replace the network of 
currency swap center scattered 
around the country. But the 
government has gone back on 
that plan and will now allow 
only Chinese companies to 
change currency through the in- 
terbank market. Foreign com- 
panies must still use the swap 
centers, which rely on finding 
individual trading partners with 
opposite currency needs to con- 
clude an exchange. 

Chinese banks will use the 
new interbank market to trade 
foreign currencies for domestic 
clients. Access to this market 
for foreign banks will be limited 
to proceeds of export sales by 
their Chinese customers. 

T’m totally unclear bow it 
will all work.” a banker said. 

For China, the move is a 
milestone in its efforts to shift 
away from a state-administered 
foreign exchange system and set 
up a modem currency market 
regulated by the central bank 


through open-market opera- 
tions. 

It is intended to pave the way 
for a freely convertible currency 
by the end of the century. 

Red carpets were placed at 
the entrance of an ornate pre- 
revolutionary building on the 
waterfront for the symbolic, 
partial opening on Friday. Ac- 
tual trading is to begin on Tues- 
day, sources said. 

The new system will include 
some changes to the swap cen- 

'I was told they 
did not want to 
open on April 
Fool’s Day. In a 
way it’s a joke, 
bat it’s not very 
funny.’ 

A foreign banker in 

S hanghai. 

ter, which Western bankers said 
would make the system even 
more inflexible when it comes 
to trading. 

Bankers who attended a 
meeting in Beijing last week 
with central-bank officials said 
it appeared the swap markets 
will now trade using fixed rates 
based on the mid-rate of the 
previous day’s trading on the 
interbank market 

The 100 or so Western banks 
allowed to join the new market 
will have to make an interest- 
free deposit of 3200,000 in hard 
currency and almost as much 
again in y uan. 


Fuji Photo 
'Surprised’ 

ByU.S.Slap 

Compiled hr Qur Sufi From Dapaeha 

TOKYO — Fuji Photo Film Co. 
said Thursday it was “greatly sur- 
prised” by the UJ3. Commerce De- 
partment's preliminary decision to 
impose high punitive tariffs on im- 
ports of its photographic paper. 

“Differences in the structure and 
distribution system of the U^. and 
Japanese markets was not taken into 
consideration in the process of cal- 
culating the margins,” said Kokhi 
Yasunaga, Fuji's managing director. 

The U.S. government's prelimi- 
nary ruling on Wednesday against 
Fuji resulted from a complaint by 
Fuji's main competitor. Eas tman 
Kodak Co. Kodak said Fuji sells its 
products in the United States at 
prices much lower than in Japan. 

The Commerce Department set 
tariffs of more than 300 percent, 
among the highest in memory, 
Washington trade sources said. 

Osamu Inoue, president of Fuji 
Photo Hbn V.SA. Inc, said the 
company was “very disappointed” 
by the r uling. “We are still con- 
vinced that in the end we will be 
found blameless." 

Although Wednesday's an- 
nouncement was not directly 
linked to the current U.S.-Japanese 
trade standoff, some analysts said 
they thought the size of the tariff 
was intended to send a message to 
Tokyo. (Bloomberg AFX j 

■ EU Lands Japan Proposal 

A European Union delegation to 
Japan welcomed on Thursday a 
package of market-opening mea- 
sures proposed this week by Lbe Jap- 
anese government, Bloomberg Busi- 
ness News reported. 

Calling the package a “positive 
first step” toward a more open 
market, the delegation said it was 
looking forward to the announce- 
ment of more specific details this 
summer, as promised by the Japa- 
nese government. 

The package has been criticized 
by the U.S. government as lacking 
substance. 


Investor’s Asia 


Hong Kong 
Hang Seng ' 
12000 - - 
.lidBHr- 


Strafe Times ; 


Dlobt 
200 ®- 



LiSSE 

i T, M|I 







■ Exchange- 'jftefei' »h 
Hong "ifiiriif 


>■■■ i... i s i'i . in.. ii j 1. 1 j i r . j ' i .. ; ■ 




jSytkuqp 




ijisdUsits 

States at ■ STO 








Sources: Reuters, AFP 


huemtioml HenU Tribune 


Very briefly; 


■ Taiwan’s government will provide 9 billion Taiwan dollars (5340 
million) to hop domestic industry acquire modem technology and cut its 
trade deficit with Japan. 

• Malaysia’s economy is expected to grow by 8.4 percent this year, nearly 
matching last year's 8 5 percent expansion in gross domestic product, the 
central bank said. Separately, three major commercial banks said they 
were cutting their base lending rates. 

• South Korea’s labor and management leaders have agreed on a pay rise 
of between 5 percent and 8.7 percent for 1994, an employers’ group said. 

• MetaDgeseOschaft AG said it was withdrawing from plans to develop a 
zinc smelter in Thailand in cooperation with Padaeng Industry Ca, 
Thailand’s largest milling company, 

• American Telephone & Telegraph Co. said it was buying a 51 percent 
stake hdd by Hutdrisoo Teleco mmuni cat io ns Ltd in the two companies' 
electronic messaging joint venture in Hong Kong. 

• Hong Kong’s government sold a major residential site to Cheung Kong 
(Hokfings) Ltd. for 22 billion Hong Kong dollars (5285 million). 

• Ftapfsn Ltd. said it expected to complete its restructuring plans, aimed at 
returning the company to profit, by March 199S. Costs of the reorganiza- 
tion are expected to total nearly 35 billion yen ($340 million). 

AP.AFX, Reuters, AFT. Bloomberg, KMghz-Ridtkr 


Delhi Summit Vies With G- 7 in Cost and Empty Pomposity 


By John F. Burns 

- Nov York Tima Service 

"* NEW DELHI — The organiza- 
tion is known as the Group of 15, 
and it has been billed as the devel- 
oping world's counterpart to the 
Group of Seven industrialized na- 
tions that bold a highly publicized 
summit conference every year. 

• But by the time the G-I5 con- 
cluded its -summit-meeting here 
.Wednesday, many who had attend- 
ed were cringing with embarrass- 
ment After a three-month post- 
ponement designed to get more 
beads erf government to show up, 
only seven of the 15 member states 
sent their presidents or prime min- 
isters, and only four of those — 

representing Argentina, India, Ma- 
laysia and Nigeria — were on hand 
when the four-day meeting came to 
a close. 

At plenary sessions, the 1200-seal 
conference ball known as the Vi- 
gyan Rhavan was so empty that In- 
dian officials had to pull in hun- 
dreds of government workers and 
security men to fill seats. Prime 
Minis ter P.V. Naratimha Rao erf In- 
dia sat sdf-cansdoosly on the podi- 
um with other government leaders, 
their seats awkwardly far apart in 
what appeared to be an effort to 
disguise Ok extent of the no-shows. 

In dian officials who had worked 
to make the summit a showcase for 


Indian diplomacy acknowledged 
that it had been a flop. 

“Let's be honest, it was a ghastly 
failure, and expensive too,” one 
Foreign Ministry official said, add- 
ing up costs that included elaborate 
new computer and sound systems 
for the conference hah, dozens of 
sunnl taneoos interpreters brought 
to India from Europe, an elaborate 
security operation that was said to 
be DdhTs "biggest hT years arid 
ranks of bullet-proof Mercedes- 
Benz Hmon sm es at 5150,000 each 
that the government had imported 
for leaders who stayed away. 

Other Indian critics suggested 
the summit might have marked the 
death knell for four decades of In- 
dian diplomacy that have centered 
on developing what one official de- 
scribed as a “trade union erf Third 
World countries." 

An editorial in The Telegraph, a 
leading newspaper in Calcutta, In- 
dia's largest city, pm the issue at its 
bluntest. It said the poor turnout 
had shown the “irrelevance” of the 
Group of 15 and the “unimpor- 
tance of India as a leader of the 
developing world.” 

The newspaper offered a wither- 
ing summary of efforts made by 
successive Indian prime ministers 
to claim a leadership role for India 
through organizations such as the 
so-called nonaligned movement. 


“Fed on a diet of Jawaharial 
Nehru sweeping all before him at 
Bandung and Cairo, dazzled by 
glittering NAM and Common- 
wealth heads of government meet- 
ings at New Delhi under the tower- 
ing figures of Nehru and his 
daughter, Indira Gandhi, India has 
dung to its illusion of pre-emi- 
nence," the paper said. 

Referring to the Group of 15, the 
odi Loral added: "Hawing fathered 
this anemic diild, India can at best 
arrange for its decent burial, along 
with its own grandiose dreams of 
leading the world from a position 
erf weakness.” 

Many delegates appeared to 
agree. “There is no action, and not 
many people to do the action 
with,” said GiriDexmo Gonzalez, an 
Argentinian official attending a 
conference on trade that accompa- 
nied the summit Similar com- 
plaints were rife among officials 
pausing to speak to reporters wait- 
ing beside the red carpet at the 
entrance to the conference hafl. 

“We don’t say the G-15 has no 
relevance — far from it but it 
could do something solid, and it 
isn’t” an Egyptian official said. 

An African official was more 
dyspeptic. Referring to the regrets 
sent by leaders of more than half of 
the 15 countries — Algeria, Brazil, 
Chile, Egypt Jamaica, Mexico, 


Pern and Venezuela — the official 
said that the Grom of Seven did 
not suffer from such no-shows. 

“Do the G-7 heads ever miss 
their summits?” he asked. “I am 
sure they are busy too." 

According to briefing papers dis- 
tributed by India in December, 
when the summit was scheduled 
and then postponed after only 
three .government leaders showed, 
up, the Group of 15 was founded 
on the initiative of Rajiv Gandhi 
when he was prime minister of In- 
dia in 1989. 

The papers said the group was 
envisaged as a counterweight to the 

Group of Seven, which developing 
countries have frequently accused 
of being a selfish club bent on pro- 
tecting the wealth of the leading 
industrialized nations. But many 
delegates who attended this week's 
meeting in Delhi said the Group of 
15, founded only months before the 
collapse of the Berlin Wall, was a 
relic from an era when many poor- 
er nations were trying to find secu- 
rity in a world dommated by two 
superpowers. 

Other delegates said some mem- 
bers of the Group of 15, such as 
Malaysia, had such rapidly growing 
economies that belonging to a dub 
erf “poor nations” had lime appeal, 
while others, such as Mexico, had 
decided then economic future lay in 


regional economic groupings — in 
Mexico's case, the North American 
Free Trade Agreement with Canada 
and the United States. 

Despite the misgivings, Mr. Rao, 
the 72-year-old Indian leader, 
plowed ahead with an agenda that 
read like a summary of meetings 
India has been attending for de- 
cades. A doting communique de- 


manded the restructuring of the UN 
Security Council, World Bank and 
International Monetary Fund to 
give a voice to developing nations 
and denounced efforts by Western 
nations to use “environmental and 
social concerns” such as h uman 
rights pressures and condemnation 
of child labor to limit trading oppor- 
tunities for poorer nations. 


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J. Rapport de gestion du Cornell d' Administration; 

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• r- 


Page 16 


SPORTS 


An American Grapples With Sumo, Finds He’s Over the Hill at 29 


By Mark Schone 

Washington Post Service 

CRANFORD. New Jersey — Emmanuel 
(Manny) Yarborough, in martial arts suit, 
wants very much to practice some takedowns. 
Basic stuff — he throws you on the mat, you 
throw him on the mat bade and forth. There 
are dozens of people practicing takedowns here 
on the mats of the Cranford Judo-Karate Club. 
They've already got partners, they’ve got too 
little drill or too much sense, but none of them 
wants to practice with Yarborough. 

“A thousand dollars," he says to a New York 
Gty cop, who declines. Finally, a member of 
the UB. national judo team, Andy Ruggiero, 
agrees. He grabs Yarborough’s uniform, known 
as a ghee, and struggles. He keeps on struggling. 
It’s a question of physics: mass , inertia and so 
on. It's a question of big. 

Yarborough likes to put his height at 6 feet 6 
(2 meters) and his weight at 550 pounds (249 
kilograms), but at the World Amateur Sumo 
Championships in December, he was measured 
at 6-8 and 640. He came in third. 

It doesn't really matter exactly how big he is, 
since he dwarfs most competitors even by the 
standards of sumo. What’s more impressive 
than his size, however, is the speed with which 
heb has risen in the sport. About a month 
before the 1992 World Amateur Champion- 
ships, Yoshisada Yonezuka, his instructor at 


the Cranford club, asked him if he'd be interest- 
ed in a free trip to Tokyo. Yarborough was 
intrigued by the prospect of one-on-one compe- 
tition with someone close to his own size, an 
experience he’d found hard to come by. He 
trained for a month and that went to Japan. 

"My fust actual match was in the world 
championships,'' he recalls, “though I did haw 
a couple of practice matches in a professional 
stable two days prior to the competition.*’ He 
came in second. 

It wasn't that hard, says the soft-spoken 29- 
year-old. “I mean, not like I thought it would 
be, because the matches are so short. It's just a 
matter of going through the ritual, and that’s 
probably more strenuous than the match. It was 
easy in the sense that sumo incorporates a lot of 
sports that I'd participated in. I was an offen- 
sive tackle, so I'm familiar with driving and 
pushing people. I wrestled collegjately and in 
high school so I'm used to grappling, and you 
get into judo and that uses throws." 

Yarborough works by day driving a medical 
supplies truck, loading and unloading boxes. 
He lives in a small yellow house near a tank- 
deaning plant in Rahway, New Jersey, and the 
training center in more upscale Cranford is a 
15-minute drive away. His bulk and his job put 
strains on his legs even before he heads to 
practice. He had a chance to parlay his celebrity 
into a pay-per-view cable TV event that pitted 


fighters from different disciplines — two bare- 
knuckle boxers, a jujitsu expert, someone called 
“a submission specialist" and four others — in 
a televised round robin. He didn’t thi nk he was 
up to it. A knee became a problem two years 
into his judo career, and now he's nursing a foot 
that be injured on the job. 

Judo matches are only five minutes long, but 
Yonezuka says that without conditioning a man 
Yarborough's size doesn't have even that much 


turn and de facto honcho of American sumo, 
thmks Yarborough could have been one of the 
spoil’s top stars, had he started sooner. In the 
past two amateur championships, says Jacques, 
the Japanese have been shocked bv Yarbor- 
ough’s power in his first match. The second 
contest brings another surprise when they real- 
ize how agfle he is." 

“By the third mairh they’re usually working 
on ways to beat him, 7 ’ Jacques says. “You’ve 


An American sumo expert thinks Yarborough could have 
been one of the sport’s top stars, had he started sooner. 


gas. He suggested sumo. It is typically only 
seconds before one nan forces another out of 
the sumo ring, and Yarborough overcompen- 
sates in speed and power for what he lacks in 
endurance. Besides, as Yarborough repeats sev- 
eral times: “It's not like this is my livelihood or 
anything. This is an avocation." 

It's a hobby be doesn’t get to indulge that 
often. His sumo opponents may be in his weight 
category, but they're in other states. There’s a 
guy m Rhode Island and a guy in Fhiladdphia. 

Most of the sumo m the United States hap- 
pens in Hawaii. A former Long Islander, John 
Jacques, president of the Oahu Sumo Assoaa- 


got to understand that in Ms whole life Manny's 
probably had a total of 10 to 15 practice ses- 
sions." 

Jacques believes the top dozen or so ama- 
teurs would be competitive in the upper ranks 
of the 10-rang, 900-strong Japanese profession- 
al league. But the Japanese don’t really want 
foreigners involved in sumo. 

Sumo is a 2,000-year-dd sport, the original 
and most important of the 10 martial arts that 
comprise budo, the way of the warrior. To 
achieve the rank olyokoema, ax the pinnacle of 
sum o, one must be the best wrestler and person- 
ify the ideal of Japanese manhood. 


Still the only wrestler currently worthy of the 
title yokozuna is American, a 6-foot-S, 490- 
oound Hawaiian named Chad Rowan who goes 
byrire name of Akebona There is another 
foreigner at the rank below him and still anoth- 
er on the third rung. 

If American baseball castoffs such as Randy 
Bpss can dominate Japanese baseball what 
might foreigners do to sumo? 

“I don’t they expected foreigners to do 
as wefi as they did," says Yarborough. He raid 
the Japanese “are not as physically strong.” 

“Tbev’re not really that wefl conditioned ei- 
ther," be said. “For the training that they do they 
could be in better shape: They do a lot of 
drinking and smoking over there. 1 was really 
surprised. It wasn’t just the wrestlers, it’s the 
culture as a whole. It’s supposed to be so stressful 
over there that they need this as a release." 

Yarborough, who is black, knows the Japa- 
nese have their own impressions of African 
Americans. Japanese pundits have blamed 
btarfre for America's social His, such as crime 
and illiteracy. Half the foreigners in the sumo 
pros are American, but only one is black, and 
he’s part Japanese. 

Though he is fully aware of die supposed 
Japanese attitude toward foreigners in general 
and blacks in particular, Yarborough is diplo- 
matic: “That's what they say. I’ve heard reports 
of it. but I haven’t witnessed iL” 


It doesn't matter. Yarborough is too old foi 
the pros anyway. The lengthy process of sumd 
apprenticeship must now start before 23. Teenl 
agers move into a sumo stable and study th) 
culture and techniques of the sport for years 
before entering the pros. An age firmt discoor. 
ages dilettantes, particularly big, strong, for* 
etgn rates. 

At age 29, Yarborough doesn't think fas 
would want to submit to sumo-style indoctrina- 
tion even if it were open to him. Most sung 
careers are over by about 30. He has an on trust- 
worthy knee and problems with his feet, bat at 
the end of the night's work in Cranford he sayi 
his legs fed all right. His worries about his 
weight seem justified, however. When he takes 
off his monogrammed ghee, Ruggiero has to 
help him with the arms. 

Yarborough heads for the door, with Yone-' 
zuka lecturing him about his potential and how. 
he needs to apply himself to realize iL The ear 
lies atthe end of a gantlet of heaving bodies tq 
the right and press clips on the wall to the Wt: 
An artide about Yarborough's triumphs in la- 1 
pan can go on that wall and perhaps more wfl£ 
join iL 

As he squeezes into his pickup truck, though,' 
it’s apparent be has a more difficult task ahead 
than mastering the martial arts of a distant,' 
insnlar culture. The world may be getting smalfa j 
but it’s already too snail for a 600-pound mm. ■ 



SCOREBOARD 


.? : •*. ic~ 




,>.*! er- <; 
— ~ - 




■•5 . 

’ tevjc. .1*- ,.. 


NBA Standings 


NHL Standings 


EASTERN CONFERENCE 
Atlantic Division 


EASTERN CONFERENCE 
Atlantic Dtvistoa 



W L 

Per 

GB 


W 

L 

T PtS GP 

GA 

x- New York 

50 19 

J25 

— 

x-N.Y. Rangers 

47 

23 

7 

101 

275 

215 

Orlando 

41 28 

J94 

9 

x-New Jersey 

45 

21 

1! 

101 

287 

202 

New Jersey 

37 32 

.536 

13 

Washington 

34 

32 

10 

71 

243 

234 

Miami 

37 33 

329 

13Vi 

Florida 

33 

32 

n 

77 

215 

214 

Boston 

25 43 

J68 

34>4 

Philadelphia 

33 

37 

7 

73 

273 

292 

Philadelphia 

21 49 

J00 

29’,‘t 

N.Y. Islanders 

31 

35 

10 

72 

254 

264 

Washington 

19 50 

275 

31 

Tampa Bay 

26 

40 

11 

63 

201 

235 


Central Division 



Northeast Division 




x-Afianta 

4V 20 

J10 

— 

x-Plttsburgh 

<0 

2S 

13 

93 

281 

265 

x-Chkoga 

46 24 

457 

3VS 

* -Montreal 

29 

25 

13 

91 

265 

22S 

Cleveland 

40 X 

.571 

9Vi 

r- Boston 

39 

25 

12 

90 

266 

226 

Indiana 

37 32 

536 

12 

Buffalo 

39 

29 

9 

87 

258 

203 

Charlotte 

31 37 

456 

T7V» 

Quebec 

3Q 

39 

7 

67 

249 

264 

Detroit 

2D 49 

390 

29 

Hartford 

25 

45 

8 

58 

277 

265 

Milwaukee 

IB 51 

36t 

31 

Ottawa 

13 

56 

8 

34 

184 

361 

WESTERN CONFERENCE 


WESTERN CONFERENCE 



Midweit Division 



Central Division 





W L 

Pet 

OB 


W 

L 

T Ptl OF 

OA 

x -Houston 

50 19 

J2S 

— 

x-Oetrah 

44 

26 

6 

94 

323 

250 

x-Son Antonio 

50 20 

714 

Mi 

x-Toranto 

60 

25 

12 

92 

251 

210 

Utah 

44 27 

■620 

7 

x -Dallas 

39 

26 

11 

89 

258 

236 

Denver 

35 33 

515 

14% 

x-St. Louis 

37 

30 

9 

83 

242 

255 

Minnesota 

19 50 

333 

31 

Chicago 

35 

33 

9 

79 232 

217 

Dallas 

0 61 

.116 

42 

Winnipeg 

23 

46 

6 

5« 

231 

316 

Pacific Dlri sbfl 

x-Seottle 52 17 .754 

x- Phoenix 45 21 662 

Portland 41 2? J 86 

Golden State 40 27 380 

LA Lakers X 38 Mi 

LA. Clippers 25 44 30 

Socromenta 23 M 333 

x-cl Inched pknroff berth 

6VS 

TV* 

12 

Z1VS 

27 

29 

Pacific Division 

X-Catoorv 37 27 12 86 

x-Vancouver 38 36 3 79 

San Jase 29 33 15 73 

Anaheim 30 42 5 65 

Las Angeles 2S 40 11 61 

Edmonton 2) 43 12 54 

x-ctlnchod may off berth 

274 238 
260 251 
229 246 
2)5 236 
270 296 
239281 

WEDNESDAY'S RESULTS 


WEDNESDAY'S RESULTS 



Indiana 

26 27 

31 19-103 

Chicago 

0 

2 

Be— 2 



Bataan 

34 19 

39 IF— 99 

Hartford 

1 

1 

81-3 




l: Smlts US 54 21. Ml I Nr via 64 H; B: 
Radla7-159-imFox9-1S7-102ftRtf»unds— 
Indiana S3 (DJ3avU20).B«t(in 56 ( Parish M). 
Anitas— Indiana 22 (McKay II, Boston If 
(Douglas 7). 

21 26 21 26—101 
23 26 31 29-111 
M: Rica 9-24 14 21, Smith 616 2-3 IV; NJ: 
Common MS S-13 25, Andaman B-il M If. 
Rahoandi— Mlaml42 (Long f ), Now Janay 7) 
(Coleman 11). Antala-Mtami 21 (Smith 6), 
Now Jorsay 22 (Anderson 13). 

Houston 26 1* 33 36-114 

Ootdan State 36 IS 33 33-104 

H: Maxwell 9-15 7-8 2ft Smith 9-16 3-5 25; Qi 
Mullln 6-13 67 IX Sprewell 8-11 54 22. R«> 
boonds— Houston 57 (Thorpe 21), Golden 
State 50 (Webber 11). Asdtas-Houtaon 30 
(Harry, Smith I). Golden State 30 (Mullln B). 




CHAMPIONS CUP 
Wednesday*! Games 
nm Rotation. Group A 
Barcelona 3, Gatatmonnr, Turkey. 0 
Grew B 

AC Milan 0, Andertocht, Belgium, 0 
Werder Bremen 0, Porto 5 

ENGLISH PREMIER LEAGUE 
Aslan Villa 0, Everton 0 
Mu mJ ie H er United I, Liverpool 0 
Sheffield Wednesday 3, Chelsea 1 
Southampton l, Oldham 3 


Pint Period: H-Sandvson 36 (Vertaeek, 
Cossets) (op). Second Period: C-Raenlck 43 
(Sutor. Che I Iasi (pp); C -Murphy 28. H-San- 
dorson 37 (Petraricky, Stevens). Overtime: 
H-CaueJs 13 (TurcoHe, Stevens). Shots on 
goal: C Ion Burke) 10-174-2-81 H (on Hock- 
ett) f-1844— 81. 

Tampa Bar 1 0 11—3 

Buffalo 1 B 10—0 

First Period: 8-Mogllny 30 (pp); T-Kllma 
26 (Cole, Chambers) (pp). Second Parted: 
None. TWrt Period: B-Audetto 25 (May. 
Planto);T-Savard 16 (sh). Overtime: T-B rad- 
ley 21 Shots oa gaol : T (on Hosek ) 7-6*3-24. 
B (on Puppa) 044-2— 26. 

Quebec 3 81-4 

Ottawa 3 31—6 

Pint Period: O-Daigle 18 (Konrovd); Q- 
Sundln 29 ( Kamensky. Weronka) ; O-Sakic 23 
(Kamensky. WOrenko); O-Turoeon 10 (DoF 
ole. Dlncen); O-Sokle 24 (Sundln) (ah); O- 
LavlnsB (Huffman. Mayer) (pp). Second Pe- 
riod: O- Murray 2 (Davydov); O-Qirfim 4 
(Yashin. Huffman). Third Period: Q-Lo- 
pabita 10 (Young); lO- Yashin 27 (McUwaln, 
RumWe) (pp). Shots an goal: Q (on Bimna- 
tan) 11-74—24. O (on FI set) 114-12-31. 

5ft. Louis 1 0 2—3 

Florida 0 ot—l 

First Period: SL-Mocfcey 1 (Nedved. Bor- 
on I.TWrd Period: F-FmgeraldlS(Mettanby. 
Lowry); SL-Showhon 42 (.tanner) ; SL- 
Stastny 4 (Shanahan. Housley) ten). Shots an 
goal: SJ_ (on Vanblesfarauck) 11-64—26. F 
(on Joeseh) 154-7—28. 



PMSnd/Ranen 


Joe Carter, who played in an exhibition game Wednesday only a week after breaking a bone in bis 
right dumb, said he will be ready to play when the Toronto Bine Jays start the season Monday. 


Pittsburgh 2 01-3 

Voscoorer f IB— I 

First Period: P-Murohy 16 1 Lemkux, Fron- 
ds) (pp); P Ikiwaood 4 (Stevens, taor) (pp). 
Second Period: V-Bure55 (Lumme. X Brown) 
(PP). Third Perio d: P-McSochem If » Fronds. 
U.Som u o ta son) (sh). Shots oogocH: P (or Whit- 
more) 8-5-8 — 21. V (on Borrosso) 12-511— a. 
Anaheim 8 21-3 

Los Angeles 1 01—2 

First Period: t_A.-Conocher 14 (Todd. Grtet- 
afo). Second Period: A-HotiMer 14 ( St wcnoy, 
McSwcn); A-Lebeou 13 (Saccot Vw Allen) 
(pp). Third Period: LA.-Todd 6 (Blake. Zhh- 


.nlkj (pp): A-McSmen 3 (Lllley. HauMor); A- 
Dourhs 12 (Gambade. Ewer); A-5oon U 
(Sweeney) (an). Shots os goal: A (onHrudey) 
KM 14— 37. LA (an Hebert) 54-18-31 


BASEBALL 


Major League Scorea 

PRE-SEASON EXHIBITION GAMES 
Wednesday’s Rashs 
Las Angeles A New York Yankees 1 


A Haifa X Florida 0 
Pittsburgh 1 Philadelphia 0 
Cleveland A Ondnnatl 5 
Boston 1, St Louts 0 
Kara City ft Houston 5 
New York Men 7. Montreal 4 
Texas 7. Minnesota a 
Toronto 1, Detroit 0 
Ocfckxtd ft Colorado 1 
Seattle 7. Chicago Cubs 2 
Milwaukee A Caritamta 3 
Chicago WMte Sox 6. Baltimore 2 
San Diego ft San Francisco 4 


BASEBALL 
American League 

BALTIMORE—' Tradea David Seoul 1st 
baseman to N-Y. Mels for Kevin Baez, short- 
stag, and Tom WegmarenBltcher. Bought con- 
tract at Lonnie Smith, outflekKr. tram Roch- 
ester. IL Optioned Mike Cook, pitcher, to 
Rochester. 

BOSTON— Signed Todd Frohwtrtti. pitcher, 
taudimr temm coolmrt font John Flaherty, 
c a tche r, to minor-league comp tar reassign- 
ment. Sent NctoMImJwv. pttther, and Carlos 
Rodriguez. sl wrt s taA to Pawt u cket IL Sent 
Carles Quintana. 1st basemanautfMder, to 
minor-league camp for reassignment. Signed 
Greg urn. taflddcr. to mlnor-ioague con- 
tract. Waived Carlos Quintana. 1st baseman. 
Sent Cory Boiley, pitcher. Jeff Richardson 
one Jose Manat. kxTmider% and Chris How- 
ard. pitcher, to Pawtucket 
California— Optioned Rod Correia, to- 
fielder, and Stave Hasey. outfMder. la Van- 
couver, PCL Sent J oroe Favrepai. catcher, to 
ralnor-league uii i m t or re ussh piment Traded 
Hilly HottwwcY.pHcJier.tu Son Diego tor Har- 
old Reynotdfcwcond baseman. Wolvod Torey 
LavuUa and Mike Brumley. inflektars. ond 
Lee G o ettarman, pitcher. Sent Brian Ander- 
anpUchor. to mino r league comp for roes- 
Ngnmoat Optionod Kevin Flora, (nfloklor, 
and Mark Dot esandnx catcher. lo Vancouver, 
PCL Seat Rub Springer, pitcher, to minor- 
league camp for reassignment Stoned Rex 
Hodfer, InfleWer, to 1-year contract 
CHICAGO WHITE SOX— Traded Esteban 
Bettre, shortstop to Texas for Scott Eyre, 
Ditcher. Sent Evre to mhmr-leeguo came for 
rgaubnfiieflt. Released Terry Leach, ptfefv 
•r.Opttoned Doug Ltodsey. catcher, and Sieve 
Schrenk. pitcher, to Nashville, AA. Sent Chrti 
Bushing and Wul hr Ritchie, pitchers, to minar- 

Itague eomp tar reanlgimwnt. Sent Kan Ro- 
mas. o u t fi el d er, to Naahriiie. 

CLEVELAND— Traded Ken Ramos, out- 
fielder, to Chlcogo White Sox far Matt Mer- 
ufia. catcher. Asstoned Paul Lesrtv pitcher, 
outright to Columbus. SAL Acquired Enrique 
Wilson, shortstop, from Minnesota to com- 
Plate earlier trade. Pvt Jerry DIPet* pitcher, 
on 15-day disabled list retroactive to Morch 
25. opNontd Herbert Porrv. lit baseman; Jo- 
Dan Tevarez. Pitcher; and Omar Ramirez, 
outfielder, to Chartotta, I L Sent Joel Skinner, 
catcher, and Chad Ogea pitcher, to mlnor- 
thague camp tor reaHtonmonL 
DETROIT— R e le ased Skeeter Barnes, out- 
fielder. Sent Jeff Kunkel. InfMder, to mfoor- 
league comp far reastignmenL Qptk n ed 
Greg Oahrand Kurt Knudaenalteherti RJco 
Braana, 1st baseman; and Shawn Hare, out- 
fielder. to Toledo, IL 
KANSAS CITY— Waived Chris Gwynn, out- 
fielder, to give him unconditional release. 

MINNESOTA— Optioned Denny Hoddng, 
shortstop; Gres Brwnmett and DaveStowaA 
plldiers.- and Mike Durant, caMwr, to Salt 
Lake CITy. PCL Sent B e r nardo Brito, J.T. 
Brueft and Oiito MarHnsz, out fi el d ers; Jeff 
l/mlt Prtcher; and Jeff Carter, second bate- 
man. to mtnortaoouo comp for reassignment. 
Optioned Shawn Bryant, pitcher, to Sait Lake. 
Sent Kevin Campbell pitcher; Damian Miller 
and Tim McIntosh. catchers; and Gary Scott. 
Mtektor; to minor-league camp for reaufgn- 
mont. Released Stove BaBtanl 1st bas e ma n ; 
Rusty Meodxa n , Enrfcnie Burgos. Bab MJ- 
lockJ and Doug Harris, Pfichen; and Nelson 
Sontavento. catcher. Placed Felbc Jose, out- 
muter, and Keflh Miller, tafiefdkr. on 15-day 
disabled list, retroactive to March 2ft 
MILWAUKEE—' Waived Juan Bell blfleld- 


er. Sent MBce i anastafc. Barry Janes and Mike 
Thomas, pitcher* to mino r l ea g ue coma tor 
reassignment Designated j off Tabaka pitch- 
er. lor imtonment. 

MY. YANKEES— Waived Kevin Moa* 1st 
baseman. Bought c witi o cj of Daryl Boston 
outfMder, from Columbus. IL Sent Mika 
Humphrey^ outfMder. outrlghtto Cofumbus. 
Sent Derek Jeter, shortstop, to minor-league 
camp far re u s s lenmenL 

OAKLAND— Seta Grata Paquette, 3rd base- 
tnm; Eric Fax, autfleidar; and Eric i ft lla nft 
cqtdier.lo m inopJwBuqcomp f orie uasta naient 

SEATTLE — Waived Rich DeLudo and 
Dave Wotnhouse.pt1diers. Seat Erik Plontan- 
bera, pitcher, to Jacksonville, 5L Sent Tom- 
my Him InBeldor.tamtnortaaauo camp for 
reassignment. Bought co nt r a ct of Bobby 
Thigpen, pitcher, from Calgary, PCL 

TEXAS— R el eased Ken Hewed pitcher, 
aid John Runed catcher. SaM Alfredo Grif- 
fith shartstapii toff atmpi. Sent Brian Sahara! 
aod Jufio Santana pHcheri; Dan PeHtor/OUf- 
fleMer; and Jim McNamara, catcher, to mi- 
nor teauue camp tor reassignment. Acquired 
Junior Ortitocatcher. from Ctaveiond lor Paul 
Lesch. p i t cher, and plover named Idler. Sent 
Doug Davts and Don Wak am at sa catchers; 
Butch Doris and Oddtba McDowell outfield- 
ers: and Rlric Helling, pitcher, to mlnor- 
taaoue camp tor reassignment. Optioned Jeff 
Frys, Mtatder, to OWahoma aty, AA. 

TORONTO— Optioned Willie Ganata. ouF 
fielder, end Eddie Zosky, inflaldor. to Syra- 
cuse. IL Returned Darren Had pitcher, to 
Syracuse. Traded Domingo Martinez. 1st 
baseman, to Otfcago White Sax for Mike Huft. 
outfielder. Optioned Huck Flener, pitcher, 
and Rob Bufierand Robert Pern. autftoMera. 
to Syracuse. Put Danny Cox. Pitcher, on 60dav 
dtaoblod mt effective March 2ft Recoiled Pool 
Menhart. pHcfwr. from Syracuse. IL and 
placed Wm on MMoyrismrtad IM.Bouaht com 
tract of Crag Godoret, pitcher, from Syracuse. 

NaNoaal Loueus 

ATLANTA— Wrived TerreU Buckley, out- 
fielder; Mike Blrttiecd Pitcher; and Jarvis 
Brown. outfMder, to give them uncondKIanal 
mtaases. Optioned Ramon CoraboHa Inftetd- 
or, to Rlchmand. I L Sant Terry Clark, nltctier. 
to minontaague camp tar reaeUgnmont. Op- 
MomdBrtanBorkaadPedroBortmpHehen 
to RMunond IL 5anf Dent Citak mtd Anthony 
Tettord, pitcher*, to minorHeaeue camp tor 
raasslgnment. Pot Oreaa Olien, pfither, on 15- 
day tfisabtad list retroactive to March 2ft 
CINCINNATI— Sent Barry Lyon, catc h er, 
to minaMeague amp tor raasalmnent. Re- 
leased Kan Pottanon. Pitcher. Put Steve Fos- 
ter, pitcher, on isdoy disabled Ust. Optioned 
Scott Service end Roes Rowed pitchers, to 
/ndtengpons.AA.3entCaeerCiixfaftailnflehl- 
•r.cnd Ken P u ltersoa pitcher, to mino r l eow u e 
camp tor raasstonmanL Ass i gned Kurt StUF 
woUnftoWT.tolndla n npo ki . put RabDIBMe. 
pltdv.on ISriaydlsabtad list. Rocallad Kevin 
JervtaPficlwr,from1ndkBxmolls.SlgncdBi1- 
on Holman, ritcher, to minor-league contract 
CHICAGO CUBB— Traded Jaw VlzcaJna 
InfleMor.to N.Y.Metsfar Anttxxry Young and 
Ottts Smith. Pitchers. Put Fnxik Castillo. 
pitcher, on &day disabled Hat, retmoettveto 
March 2ft and Jessie Hollins, pitcher, on 15- 
day disabled fist Optioned Turk wended 
pltcher.and Darren Cax.catrtier, to Iowa AA. 
Sent Mike Anderson and Chuck Qlm, pHch- 
ers, to minor-ietsxie canrn for rtoaotgnment. 

COLORADO— Optioned Chris Jones, out- 
firidar.ond Jim Tatum, tnllelder, to Cotorado 
Springs, PCL Waived Eric Wedge, catcher. 
Optioned Darrell Sherman, outfielder, and 
Keith Shepherd, pitcher, to Cotorada Springs. 

FLORIDA— Sent Steve Lana. Pitcher, out- 
right to Edmordan. PCL waived Joe KHnk and 


Rich Rodriguez, pftriters. to gtse flxm uncaf 
dtttanaf nNeasee. Placed Dove Magadn x 
baseman, on 15-day dtsebtad nst Rcaafled Yon 
Ms Pena, pitcher, tram minor-league ^ 
Sent John MasoareDl ouBetder, to irwnr. 
league comp tor reassignment, sent Darns 
Whfimora.COrtEverattonaNigtlMfibon.osi- 
fieideri, ond Gres OTtofioran, cotchor. to E6 
montan. Optioned Yorkls Perez. Tvty 
• ws and Jim Com Pitchers; Stave Decker end 
MRdt Lydotocetdarw cm Scott Pose, 
er. to irdnaHeaoue oomp tor reasstansnt 
refused asstanmsnt and became tree caect 
HOUSTON— OpfioncdJctai Hudek.pfitrar.lB 
Tucson PCL Assigned Scooter Tucker, cakft 
or. outright to Tucson Sent Comtek) Marta, 
ouMeldor, to thofr minor-league camp tor ren- 
dW H Mft Put Braullo CojHUd, oofiMkr, or 
restricted Ust Optioned Dontbno Joanplktw, 
ond Orlando MUor, kifioktor, to Taaxnq. . 

LA. DODGERS— Traded James Dam, 
pusher, to Houston tor At Osuna. pjtdm. 

MONTREAL— Added Jeff Gardner. ktfWg 
er. to motor-league reefer. Dcstonated Bum 
H enry, plidter. tor reasstanmcnL Sent Curfb 
Pride, outfit btar, to Ottawa, IL Traded Ora 
Murray, outfielder, to Boston tor atawr 
nomad totor.wotmd Randy Ready, MMSr. 

MY. METS— Acaulred Robert Perm, 
pi hdter, from Florida tar Steve Long, pOdxr, 
and g sel gned Person to Bin g h am ton, el 
W aived Jariat ManmHtfr pitater, and One 
Oban catcher , to give them uneondlfiml 
roioaMS. Opfioned Maura Gann Kenny Cmr 
ml Frank Sondnara, ptfrtieri. to Narfcft.lL 
Sent Jim Undoman ana Jeff Manta InfMosn 
to mtaoMoagua enmp for raanignmoift 
PITTSBURGH— Traded Scott Button. «6 
fielder, to Chlcaga Cubs for Travis wws 
pitcher. Sent Scott Scudder and WlNts. pfidi- 
ers, to mlnaHeaoue camp tor roaeMimNnt 
PHILADELPHIA— Sent Trier Orm 
Pitcher, ip Scranton- Wilkes Barra, IL , 
ST. LOU 15— Optioned Phil 5f»Phe ns cn no 
Scott Cootoaugh. Infielders; sieve DJxon and 
Rich Batchelor, pfichen; ond John Mabry. 
outfMder. to Lou tori lie. AA. 

San DIEGO— Waived Guillermo veh» 
ouaz.1»tb o Be man ,and Stove P e nues .outfitl6 
er.opttemd Jeet Martinez, pitcher, to WW6 
tft TL AMianad Seott Chkmiparlna, pffdin 
to Las Vtaai PCL Released Gena PetnB 
catcher, and Kevin EMtr, shortstop. Rife' 
eafod their Midwest League affiliate trw 
Woferioa town, to SorlngftokL III. Walvd 
Guttlermo Velasquez. Infleidar. 

SAN FRANCISCO— Bought contract of Erte*T 
Oirtstanhonoacntchor.from Seotflo. Peter*. 
M agowoa m anaging general p artner mil 
prosklent, has (required remaining Interests 
team heU by Wdltor H. Shorewieln Ptoad 
Bud Black, pitcher, an JSday dlsootad M 
•ffeefiye April 3. Sant JJL Phillips, lit bm- 
man.ml Tony Manandez.plMtar, to PhoMh 
PCL Sent Eric Johnson, tnflatdar; Tom Lone- 
kbuoafehar; ml PotGonwzHindiar.toinlBta' 
tawm camp tar recBatonmenf. 

BASKETBALL 

National Baketball Association 
NBA— Fined Cart Herrera. Houston to- 
ward, and Olden Polynia. Sacramento (ta- 
lar, S&00D and suspended thorn for 1 gome tir 
throwing PunctMftand fined Vernon Mnxxeft 
Houston guard. SlftOOO, for tolling to Hem 
court In timely maawr, berating offldabata 
throwing eMects In game on March ». [ 

FOOTBALL 

National Faotbtaf Loagoa 
ATLANTA— Will not ox orabo option on aw 
tract a( Bobby Hebert, qu art e rb ack- to 
stoned Harper LcBel, Natrt end. 

CLEVELAND— Stoned Tom Tupa. quarter- 
hack. 


i Soil 




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PEANUTS 


CALVIN AND HOBBES 



MERES THE FIERCE JUNGLE 


V51HG ALL HIS NATIVE 


( 15 TWI5 THE FRONT ] 

ANIMAL 5MEAKIN6 UP 


CI/NNIN6, HE CREEPS UP 


VOR THE BACK ? 7 

ON MIS PREY... 


BEHIND HIS VICTIM... 



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SPORTS 


Giddy New Guy 
Lets Secret Slip 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 1, 1994 


Page 17 _ 


The Associated Press 

®any Switzer was so 
fflated about beog named coach of the Dal- 
las Cowboys ihat be may have let slip a secret. 
, . m **. news conference announcing 
7 s fwijzcr said the team’s owner! 
Jaiy Jones, had called him about the job last 
week whm Jimmy Johnson was still the 
team s coach. 

“I was so fortunate to be lying on the couch 
last week for that phone caU," Switzer said. “I 
answered the phone and it was Jerry Jones. 

“ ‘Barry,’ he said, ‘two questions: Do you 
still want to coach? And would you like to 
possibly think about coaching the Dallas 


Jones stepped in shortly afterward and 
gave a rambling excuse as to why Switzer was 
confused about when the call' Was marif; 

“That’s not the case," Jones said. “Basically, 
I spoke of Bany last week at the league meet- 
ings. 1 wanted to meet with Jimmy Monday I 
didn’t actually talk to Barry until Monday. 

“I wanted to speak with Jimmy. I gave 
Barry a cal] and told him I know his name had 
bra brought up. 1 hoped I hadn’t embarrassed 
him. He said, ‘Jerry, you have honored me and 
yon have complimemed me,’ That’s when I 
wanted to inquire about his interest" 
Switzer, asked again when Jones first 



hoi K. Bod/ Afcacc rn n a-ftm t 

Bany Switzer; GaDed last week? 

called him, replied with a ctiwIp- “I can’t 
remember exactly. It happened obviously af- 
ter the publicity had bom in the paper.” 

Switzer signed a five-year, $5 million rf«*i 
that includes an annual “five-year rollover” 
clause allowing him to renegotiate and possi- 
bly extend his term, the Fort Worth Star- 
Tdegram reported in its Thursday editions. 


Switzer Brings a Checkered Past to Cowboys 


By Robert McG. Thomas Jr. 

New York Times Service 

NEW YORK — When Jerry Jones, the own- 
er of the Dallas Cowboys, introduced Barry 
Switzer as the National Football League team s 
new coach, he recalled that Switzer was his 
freshman football coach at the University of 
Arkansas and in charge of his freshman dorm. 

“He kept several of as straight,” said Jones, 
whose comment at the news conference 
Wednesday in Irvine, Texas, drew a chorus of 
double-edged chuckles. 

For whatever humor there may have been in 
the multimillionaire owner’s self-deprecating 
suggestion that he may have needed someone to 
keep him straight, the remark also served as a 
pointed reminder of Switzer’s later reputation. 

In the 16 years he spent as the University of 
Oklahoma’s coarii, w inning three unofficial na- 
tional championships, capturing 12 Kg Eight 
titles and turning in a 157-29-4 record that made 
him one of college football’s most successful 
coaches, Switzer was known for many things. 

He was known as a keen judge of football 
talent He was known as a charming and per- 
suasive recruiter, who used his dirt-poor Arkan- 
sas origins to build special relationships with 
underprivileged black players. 

He was known as a powerful motivator. He 
was known as a master tactician whose wish- 
bone offense scored at will and whose defensive 
schemes stopped rivals cold 


But the one thing he was not known for was 
keeping his players straight. 

Indeed, during his years at Oklahoma, Swit- 
zer was widely regarded as a coach who put 
winning so far above character that be didn’t 
hesitate to break recruiting and other rules, and 
who couldn’t care less what his stars did off the 
field as long as they won Saturday afternoon. 

fa his 1 988 autobiography. “The Boz," Brian 
Boswonh, one of Switzer's great linebackers, 
who was suspended for steroid use before the 
1987 Orange Bowl, described Switzer as a good 
motivator who “turns his back” on his players’ 
off-fidd behavior. 

Among such behavior, according to Bos- 
wonh, was the free-basing of cocaine and lavish 
living on the illicit largesse of Sooner boosters. 

Against that free-wheeling backdrop, it seems 
a wonder that the Sooners were put on probation 
by the National Collegiate Athletic Association 
only twice in the Switzer era. But the second 
tune, in December 1988, proved lobe the begin- 
ning of the end of Switzer’s reign at Oklahoma. 

la one 52-day period early in 1989, one of his 
players was charged with snooting a teammate, 
another was charg ed with selling cocaine and 
three were charged with a gang rape. 

The clamor for Switzer’s removal grew too 
much for university authorities to ignore, it 
reached a peak when the Oklahoma dass of ’49 
said it would caned its 40th reunion if Switzer 
wasn’t fired. 

Switzer, who took pride fa bang a friend to 


his players, did not hdp his cause when Ik 
alerted quarterback Charles Thompson that 
Thompson was being investigated for selling 
cocaine, an act, authorities said, that spoiled a 
wider drug-selling investigation. 

Within months, Switzer was forced to resign. 

Although university officials woe portrayed 
as high-minded. Switzer saw them as hypocrites 
and himself as a victim of Oklahoma football 
mania. 

fa his 1990 autobiography, “Bootlegger’s 
Boy,” Switzer recalled an encounter with the 
univasiiv president after his team turned in 
records of 7-4-1, 8-4 and 8-4 from 1981 to 1983. 

The president, Switzer said, told him that his 
job would be in jeopardy if be ever again lost 
four games, then added: “But Bury, if you win 
the national championship, the regents won’t fire 
you even if we catch yon smoking dope;” 

Switzer, whose 1985 squad went 11-1 and 
was declared national champion, may have be- 
lieved it. Certainly he did utile to control his 
players. 

“I learned a lesson," Bosworth wrote; “If yon 
were a star on the University of Oklahoma 

it ii a. - r « . i - 


you wanted. You had no rules.” 

Switzer made the blind eye a virtual coaching 
credo. Indeed, in his ovm life Switzer has some- 
times seemed as unfettered as Ins players. 

He has been arrested for drunken driving, 
has admitted having an affair with the wife 
of one of ins assistant coaches, which preceded 


and apparently precipitated his divorce, and 
has acknowledged making almost $100,000 on 
what turned out to be an insider stock tip he 
said he overheard at a track meet. (Civil charges 

filed by the Securities and Exchange Commis- 
sion against Switzer and six of his mends were 
dismissed in 1984 for lade of evidence.) 

Whatever his shortcomings, few would deny 
that Switzer could have done much worse ana 
still considered his life a triumph over adversi- 
ty- 

As described in his autobiography, Switzer 
grew up in a house without electricity or indoor 
plumbing. father was a bootlegger who dkd 
after he was shot by Ins mistress, who crashed 
her car while taking him to the hospital His 
mother committed suicide moments after Swit- 
zer, then a student at the Univeraty of Arkan- 
sas, refused to kiss her. 

AU that is behind him now. Switzer, who has 
operated an insurance agency and other busi- 
nesses in Oklahoma City since leaving college 
coaching, won’t have to worry about NCAA 
roles or university regents as coach of the Cow- 
boys. 

His only concern will be his boss, the msm 
who remembers him as a freshman advisor wbq 
kept him straight. 

One thing, of course, won’t change: Jerry 
Jones likes to win as much as any Sooner 
booster. But if there is one message in Switzer’s 
life it is that winning is one thing he knows how 
to da 




In Hog Heaven , After the Sty 

A rk a ns as, They Now Say Richardson’s a 'Great Coach’ 


^5- *; * : 

^ • 

V* * 


By Michael Wilbon 

Washington Post Service 

l CHARLOTTE, North Carolina 

- Nolan Richardson has been 
hearing the same thing for 14 years, 
although his University of Arkan- 
sas basketball te ams have won 20 
or more games 11 times, 30 or more 
twice, and the Razoibaiks are now 
back for a second time in the semi- 
finals of the NCAA championship 
tournament 

- Richardson has won a higher 
percentage of games than all but 
four other active coaches fa Divi- 
sion L They all say he’s a great 
recruiter, a great motivator, a guy 
who’s gpt great athletes. And. as 
tough a guy as he is, be bears that 
and winces. 

- “They say my good friend Rick 
Pitino plays op- tempo.” Richard- 
son said. “They say 1 play street 
baH 1 hear a lot of labels, every- 
thing but ‘great coach.’ I guess it’s 
just a matter of who’s domg whaL 
When you’re stereotyped, you just 
bave to live with ft.” 

Of course, it’s easier to live with 


the baO and hold it I call that 
. puppet basketball: I pass the ball 
for a minute, then it’s your turn to 
pass ft around for a minute. We 
both hold it, bold it, hold it, then 
tty to get ft inside.” 

This was after Richardson had 


to keep his head up," recalled one 
of the coach’s staunch supporters, a 
banker who is white. “Oooh, it was 
so ugly those first two years. 

“He’s such a great man, to have 
put up with all thatcrap with his 
daughter dying, and not even hold- 


Amazing Villanova 
Wins NTT’s Crown 


played for the San Diego Chargers ing a grudge or being bitter, 
in the American Football League If Richardson is bitter, it c 


in the American Football League 
and the Dallas Chaparra ls in the 
American Basket bad Association. 

The high school at which he 
landed a job as a coach was pre- 
dominantly Mexican-American, 
and Richardson’s biggest players 
were not big. He called them 
“Richardson’s Runts." When the 
school was relocated to a predomi- 
nantly hlwHf neighborhood, he got 
64 and 6-5 players, Richardson, a 
self-described aggressive coach, 
found his players could take on his 
personality and win. 

It worked al Tulsa, where for five 
straight years Richardson's imm* 
got to postseason play, three times 
to the NCAA tournament. But the 
first two years at Arkansas, his 
teams went 12-16 and 19-14. He 
was trying to play an up-tempo 
gan»with;Edd« Sutton's leftover 









when your top-seeded team has an- was trying copiay an up-tempo 
;• ~ other shot at a national tftla It game vnih. Eddie Sutton s kftpws 
; rr-r-f fbdps when die president of the 1!^ to half " 

' United States counts himself as a court baskrtbalL Then his 
.I fl fan and wears your team’s sweat- daughter, Yvonne, died of lenke- 
r-.- •: shirt. It hdps when your wi nnin g ““ ™ second year. 

percentage is higher than Bob Even as she suffered. Richardson 

:i - ; " Knight’s, than Denny Cram’s, than bring harshly criticized by 

John Thompson’s. But it’s taken ** °* d 

tatfl now. his 14th season as a friends of Sntton, who had »>ne to 
Division I bead coach, for people ^nmcfcy to replwe Joe B. HaH, by 
- outside the coaching profession to »»8Ms who thought a bhgt man 
-r; say Nolan Richardson is a “great sho^ have bear hired to 
criadu" coach at Arkansas. 

• 121080 around Richardson are “l remember drfending himat 
sensitive to the belated acknowl- day, sendmg tarn 

-.r edgmenL Scotty Thnnnan, the 6- faxes of encouragement idling him 

*• foot, 6-inch swingmap, said: “Peo- 

pie sometimes tall it street ball, 

- which is unfortunate. It's pick-up i i_ c pp 

ball with a lot of discipline.” UrOtfOe OUfterS 

Corliss Williamson, Richard- ** 

son’s 6-7 power forward, said, “As A 
coach says, it’s not mn-and-gun, 

^ ■ it’s nm-and-execute.” The Associated Press 

The Razorbacks know they are BERLIN — Suspended 
. ’not gning to be yanked from the world ch amp ion sprinter Ka- 
igametfthey miss a shot or make a trin Krabbe has suffered a 
■ turnover. And Richardson doesn’t miscarriage, her father, Peter, 
■mend the game screaming at the said Thursday, just two weeks 
•■■“*3 ’ rtffiriaU and half the postgame in- after the 24-year-old east Ger- 


lf Richardson is bitter, it doesn’t 
show. But he doesn’t hesitate to call 
that first season, fa 1985-86, “the 
saddest part of my career. 

“Those were ibe greatest kids,” 
he said. “They worked so hard, 
endured so much and became so 
dose. 1 couldn’t play that way with 
his players, because that wasn’t 
their style at all" 

“It was a tough job, I could have 
left," he added. “But I owed it to 
Frank Broyles,” the legendary 
coach and athletic director “who 
took a big chance on hiring a Nolan 
Richardson in 1985, hiring me in 
the South.” 

One of Ms present players is Da- 
vor Rimac, who is from Zagreb. 

Yugoslavia. He. perhaps more than 
anybody else on the team, is of- 
fended by any slight — real or i 

percerrcd^- armed at Richa rdson . , , , , , 

can basketball on a summer trip 
that he wanted to live in the United 
States. When arrangements fell 
through with two families, Rich- 
ardson had Rimac come to live 
with Ms family for Rimac’s junior 
year of high school 
“Coach is African American, his 

wife is Ifopan ic.^and rm^fram^En- '"T*> 

had abetter time, or learned more 

Sii 1 Steve Snafafomd a w^arotmdBeooifBefljaiiHn,bift the Nets moved a haif-game ahead of Ae stone- 
is talented players.” coM Heat in the Eastern Conference standmgs by handing Miami its sixth straight defeat, 11 MOL 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dkpaches 
NEW YORK — S tunningly in- 
ept last season, just plain stunning 
this season. 

That's Villanova. 

The Wildcats completed an 
amaring turnaround from their 
1992-93 season, winning the NIT 

champio nshi p Wednesday night 


Vanderbilt scored only three 
points fa the final four nmintwt 
after the game was tied at 70. 

In the consolation game, Dore- 
mns Bennerraan scored SI points 
as Siena (25-8) beat Kansas State 
(20-14), 92-79. 

Bennennan, who made an NIT 


.with an 80-73 victory over a much record 27 of 30 free throws and 6 of 
more experienced Vanderbilt tnam 8 3-pointers, got his last 19 points 



t? jj'it 

■ <*> .4; 

I 

wm 


Villanova, which finished with a fro™ ^ fonl fate and broke the 
20-12 record after going 8-19 last tournament scoring record of 132 
season — its worst m two decades pofais set by Reggie King of Ala- 
— rallied from a 15-point halftime ban* ™ 1979. Bennennan scored 
deficit and won going away. 174 points, an average of 34.8 per 
“Last year, it was lure, “Lei's just game. (AP, NYT) 


get this season over with.’ This _ , * 

year, it was like, ‘Let’s do some- ® Worse for Celtics 

thing,’” said Jonathan fMynes, BostOD ^ ebea ^ ^ 

sured of their first l^SSd in 


Villanova the lead for good. 

It was a poised performance by a 
team made up primarily of sopho- 
mores and freshmen, and it even 


15 years, dmebed a bdow-j500 re- 
a cord at home for the first time since 
y the 1969-70 NBA season when they 


uifJi a ^ to* 103-99, Wednesday night to 

shocked second-year coach Steve the indiana Pacers. 

Lappas, who took over the pro- D -,. „ . , _ 

gramwhen Roflie Massmrino left , Rik Stmts had 21 pomus and five 
for UNLV teammates also scored in double 

“These guys have been messing figures for the Pacers, w ho w on at 

rrm im all war ** I ormna c aid TV,. BOStOn Garden lOT the tOTt time 










cold Heat in the Eastern Conference stanrimgfl by handing Miami its sixth straight defeat, 11 MOL high 30 points. 


me op aD year," Lappas said. “De- ™ 

spite their age, they respond under 01106 **’0. 

adverse conditions. Bang young is The only thing left for the Critics 

one thing, but being composed is to avoid Is their aB-tizne record for 
another. These gays surprised even futility. The 16-time NBA champi- 
me.” ons have had only seven losing sea- 

It was the Wildcats’ composure sans m theft histay, with a worst of 
that killed Vanderbilt (20-12). 324 (22-46) in W9-50. 
winch led, 41-26, at halftim e. This has a 2543 record 

Villanova opened the second with 14 jymes left, for a w inning 
half with a 30-16 run to draw with- percentage of .367, tied for third 
in one, then survived some great worst in franchise history. If they 
outside shooting by Frank Seckar. win at least two of their last games, 
a junior who finished with a career- the Critics win avoid falling bdow 


the mark of the 1949-50 team. (AP) 


terview talking about all the adjust- 
ments he made. 

“I can get you a book and have 
you study the two-three zone or 
teach you how to press,” he said. 
“But that’s not coaching. That 

doesn’t mean you can go (Kit on the 


* 

^ ■ 


people, just be yourself and gel kids 
to believe in what you’re doing.’ 

“You couldn’t tell me I wasn’t a 
great coach" in high school “in the 
70s. My games were 8-7 at half- 
time, Td love it that people would 
walk far and say, “Boy what a great 
defensi ve matchup that is. What 
great execution. This guy really 
knows Ms Xs and Os.’ 

“What buIL AD you did was take 


Krabbe Suffers 
A Miscarriage 

The Associated Press 

BERLIN — Suspended 
world champion sprinter Ka- 
trin Krabbe has suffered a 
miscarriage, her father, Peter, 
said Thursday, just two weeks 
after the 24-year-old east Ger- 
man revealed she was preg- 
nant. 

Krabbe, the 1991 world 
champion in the 100 and 200 
meters, has said she hopes to 
resume training next year and 
is aiming at the 1996 Olym- 
pics. 

Her doping- related suspen- 
sion by the International Am- 
ateur Athletic Federation ex- 
pires in August 1995. 

She left her longtime boy- 
friend, Torsten Krentz, a ca- 
noeist, in December and began 
a relationship with her lawyer, 
Micbad Snnncrmann, she told 
the Bild newspaper in .an- 
nouncing hex pregnancy. 


K =TI771 


INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFIED 


UEFA Alters Days for Cup Matches 

BERN, (Reuters) — UEFA has relegated two of its European cup 
competitions to Tuesdays and Thursdays next season to create a bigger 
television stage on Wednesdays for its revamped Champions’ Cup. 

The UEFA Cup, to be expanded to about 100 dubs to accommodate 
several new nations, will play its matches on Tuesdays. Cup Winners' 
Cup matches wiD be played cm Thursdays. 

Eliza Near Cimmmavigation Record 


BREST, France (AFP) — Only gales and high seas stood Thursday 
between Enza New Zealand and its bid to san round the world in a 
record-breaking 75 days. 

The 92-foot catamaran, skippered by Peter Blake and Robin Knox- 
Johnston, was expected to cross the finishing line off the Isle of Ouessant 
on France’s western-most tip early Friday morning. 

If so, the boat, which set off Jan. 16, would break by more than four 
days the mark of 79 days, 6 hours, 15 minutes, 56 seconds that was set by 
Bruno Peyron of France in Commodore Explorer last year. 

For die Record 

Michael Jordan has been assigned to the Class AA Bi rm i n gha m 
Barons, the Chicago White Sox announced Thursday. (AP) 

Anthony Yotmg, who lost a record 27 straight games for the New York 
Mels last season, was traded to the Chicago Cubs for shortstop Jose 
Vizcaino. (AP) 

Marie Josfe Perec of France, the 400-metcr winner at the 1992 Olym- 
pics, sidd rite had derided to move to California for the next two years to 
train under UB. trade coach John Smith. (AP) 


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Page 18 


EVTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 1, 1994 


OBSERV ER 

Dressing Down 


Paul Touvier and the Case of Victor Basch 


By Russell Baker 

N EW YORK — If you watched 
the Academy Awards show 
you probably noticed a lot of the 
men looked like c riminals. 

Not high-class criminals, either, 
like the spilfQy tailored politicians 
and corporate semi-giants who get 
sentenced to Florida to grow toma- 
toes and play tennis at that federal 
prison for socially presentable fel- 
ons. 

These movie birds had the crimi- 
nal look popularized in the Dick 
Tracy strip back in the 19305 when 
Dick was trying to bring Stooge 
Vlller to justice. 

Those magnificent Hollywood 
jaws were bine with five-day whis- 
kery growths. Shirts were worn 
without neckties. Even under tux- 
edo jackets! Why? You could only 

speculate: 

Suppose you are on your way to 
the Academy Awards, all dressed 
up in your tuxedo, and you get an 
order on the cellular phone (coded, 
of course, to keep the cops from 
interfering) to take somebody for a 
ride, or however they say it nowa- 
days. 

Naturally you've left your rod, or 
roscoe or whatever they call it now- 
adays, at home, since it would ruin 
the drape of your tux. What you do 
have, though, is something useful 
for a garroting; namely, a necktie. 

To be sure, the show had far too 
many tuxes without neckties. There 
couldn't have been that many 
bump-offs, or so-long-busters. or 
whatever they call them nowadays, 
committed in Los Angeles just be- 
fore the Academy Awards, could 
there? 

Anyhow, this theory wouldn't 
account for all the men who didn't 
even wear shirts under their tux- 
edos. This group, men who es- 
chewed shirts altogether, mostly 
wore what looked like dentist’s tu- 
nics under tuxedo jackets. Natural- 
ly without neckties. 

□ 

The dentist’s- tunic crowd for the 
most part was heavily whiskered, 
too, thus intensifying the evening’s 
distinctly criminal look, which 
must be the sartorial rage in south- 
ern California this spring. 

These men, after all. make big 
money in show business, so don’t 
have to knock over filling stations 
or send dirty donble-crossers, or 
whatever they call them nowadays. 


to sleep with Bonnie, Clyde and the 
fishes, or however they say it news- 

question then is, why do 
men so well heeled that they can 
wear anything they want to wear 
choose to appear before an interna- 
tional television audience looking 
so ratty, or whatever they call it 
nowadays. 

Here’s a guess: It’s part of the 
down trend in American life. Down 
is becoming the place to be. Down 
is in, chic, the cat's pajamas, or 
however they say it nowadays. 

Public education has been 
dumbed down. Deviancy, as Sena- 
tor Moynihan points out, has been 
defined down; meaning that stan- 
dards of acceptable behavior have 
dropped so low that we will put op 
with almost anything. 

Language has been coarsened 
down. That’s why you hear so 
many ostensibly civilized people, 
female and male, using language so 
blue it would make a sailor blush, 
or however they say it nowadays. 

□ 

As lime builds its callus over 
memory, people forget that dumb- 
ness this deep, behavior this squal- 
id and language this low were once 
regarded as, respectively, inexcus- 
able, criminal and vile. The down- 
ing trend numbs us as we adapt to 
ever-falling standards, so that we 
don't notice bow dumb we're be- 
coming, how nastily we behave and 
bow crudely we talk. 

The HoDywood guys with their 
old Stooge Viller whiskers and eye- 
sore dinner-jacket treatments were 
going with the trend. By going for 
the hobo look of the 1930s hoodlum 
and treating the old-fashioned tux- 
edo as an authentic “monkey suit," 
they were simply dressing down, 
poor guys. Poor rich guys, that is. 

To be fair, not all of them looked 
comically thuggish. Paul Newman, 
for one, wore his tux exactly the 
way a tux is supposed to be worn 
by people so at ease in the social 
whirl that they never wear a tux 
with a five o'clock shadow or refer 
to that garment, lowbrow style, as a 
“tux." 

Curiously, the women of Holly- 
wood dressed up that night. It is 
tempting to say they looked terrif- 
ic. or whatever they call it nowa- 
days. But that would probably be 
sexist Forget I mentioned it 

Nr*- York Tima Service 


By Joan Dupont 

P ARIS — At the Versailles courtroom 
where Paul Touvier, the militia chief 
of intelligence for the Lyon region under 
the Vichy regime, sits accused of crimes 
against humanity, die historian Fran$oise 
Basch is in the audience. In the complex 
legal tangle around Touvier, the murder of 
her grandfather, Victor Basch. is a charge 
that has been dismissed, But it is a case 
that has made history. 

“My grandfather would have been scan- 
dalized to see that most of the charges 
against Touvier — including his own mur- 
der — have been dropped,” says Basch, 
the author of a biography, “Victor Basch." 
“I wrote the book so he would not die a 
second time, the death of oblivion." 

From the Dreyfus trial through World 
War I and the Front Populaire, the name 
Basch became identified with human 
rights. In 1944, when Victor Basch was 
kwixl, along with his wife, the word spread 
like wildfire. Framjoise Basch sees it as 
almost a logical end to his career. Her 
book is also a family story, her own histo- 
ry: As a child during the Occupation, she 
was sent to live with her grandparents. 

“He was a brilliant professor, but he 
was a 19th-century man, totally blind to 
psychological problems, and he had no 
idea how to treat a child,” she says. 

Basch has dredged up painful memories 
and kept recently excavated emotion at 
bay, moving her difficult relative into a 
new space; now she can call him Victor. 

A restive, brooding intellectual, prone to 
rages and depressions. Victor was no com- 
fortable old sage. A founder and president 
of the League of the Rights of Man, he was 
an agitator, a fiery orator. “He was incredi- 
bly brave, nothing stopped him. During the 
Dreyfus Affair, he was constantly attacked, 
and under the Occupation be refused to go 
into hiding," says Basch. 

Neither lawyer nor sta t esma n , Victor 
Basch was a lifetime student of the hu- 
manities. Bom in Budapest in 1863, he 
grew up in Paris; at the Lycee Condorcet, 
he had several of the same professors as 
Marcel Proust He was a young professor 
teaching German literature and philoso- 
phy in Rennes, the heart of Catholic Brit- 
tany, when the Dreyfus Affair exploded. 
In 1894, Captain Alfred Dreyfus, accused 
of sailing ntititaiy secrets to Germany, was 
court-martialed and sent to Devil's Island. 

“The affair changed Victor's life,” Basch 
says. “At first he kept a low profile —he 
wasn't yet naturalized and wasn't part of 
the Parisian elite — he was out in the 
woods. But he did his own investigation and 
experienced a conversion: He realized that 
behind the affair was anti-Semitism.” 



C Viasr fast =r 193“ 


Franpnse Basch: “I wrote the book so be would not die a second lime.' 1 


As evidence of Dreyfus’s innocence 
built intdkcmals rallied. In 1898, the year 
Emile Zola published “T accuse,” the 
League of the Rights of Man was founded. 
Militating for a retrial, “Basch tire Han- 


denounced by his dean, jeered by stu- 
dents; demonstrators stoned his house, 
but nothing cracked his resolve. “Victor 
had a sense of drama: He lived the Drey- 
fus Affair like a Shakespearean tragedy or 
a Wagnerian opera,” says Basch. 

After Dreyfus was rehabilitated. Victor 
and his wife, Bona (Helene in French), 
went to Paris: he taught aesthetics at tire 
Sorbotme and joined the Socialist Party 
under Jean Jauris, a friend since lycee 
days. In 1916, Basch spent months in the 
United States trying to get the Jewish 
community behind the Allied cause, argu- 
ing that tire pogroms in Russia shouldn't 

blind Americans to rising anti-S emitism in 

Germany. After World War L, he was an 
advocate of reconciliation, but he came up 
against German nationalism in Potsdam, 
where he was shouted down. 


In the *305, a vociferous anti-fascist an 
the side of Republican Spain and activist 
for Lion Blum's Popular From, he got his 
skudl bashed, “but he always bdueved, 
sometimes quite mistakenly, that justice 
would win out." Basch says. As a family 
man, she recalls “a tender father, but an 
anxious and domineering patriarch." 

The couple bad lost Fanny, their first 
child; Lucsen, their second, ’died during 
World War L At the start of World War IL 
the remaining children, Georges, Fran- 
coise's father, and Yvonne, were far from 
home. “When my mother sent me to live 
with my grandparents, he was old; he was 
also terribly depressed." 

When the Nazis occupied Paris, Victor 
Basch was on the list of influential intellec- 
tuals and Jews to be eliminated. In No- 
vember 1940, 125 Jewish professors were 
banned from tire Sorbonne. The couple 
resettled outride Lyon in the unoccupied 
zone. In early June, their Paris apartment 
was sealed by tire Gestapo; Victor’s papers 
and bodes were confiscated; his public life 
was over. The man of action sat with his 


thoughts; deprived of his books, he went 
to the local library, where he found Vol- 
taire, Dostoyevsky and Conrad. 

On June 20, tire crudest disaster strode 
the family : Georges Basch, who was a 
doctor on the front, despondent at the 
defeat, committed suicide. Te llin g Fran- 
arise and her brother, Andre, that he had 
been killed in a bombing. Dr. Marianne 
Basdi took the children to live with their 
grandparents while she continued her 
practice in the Vaucluse. She would visit at 
midnight with valises of food and wood, 
and leave at 6 AM. 

Life with the tragically affected elders 
was a drama for Franijoise: “Looking 
back, I was really angry with everybody: I 
had lost my father and could never talk 
about h. I refused to cooperate, I was a 
disaster.” A severe taskmaster, the best 
thing Victor had to say about his rebd- 
Hous granddaughter who had tittle Latin 
and no household skills, was that she 
promised to be “a woman of action." 

The children were no longer in the apart- 
ment on Jan. 10, 1944, when tire rzntitia 
rawimandn came to arrest Victor and Dona 
at dinn er time: “An extreme right-wing 
thug derided he had to get Victor Basch; he 
alerted the Gestapo and the local Lyon 
militia, namely Touvier, and a joint opera- 
turn was launched- They moved fast.” 

Outside Lyon, tire couple were taken 
from the car and shot, their bodies left on 
the ride of the road. On Victor’s corpse, 
under a stone was a tract, “Terror for 
terror. The Jew always pays . . 

At the time of the murder, Victor and 
Bona were 81 years old and Fran^oise was 
12: “1 didn't feel much at first because of 
my difficult relationship with them. It 
tank in gradually. Doing research for the 
book, I saw Victor’s ID card stamped 
JEW; I saw the bullet from my grand- 
mother’s head. It all caught up with me.” 

After the murder, Marianne Basdi and 
the children crossed into Switzerland. “My 

mother had to tell the Swiss police why we 

needed asylum: She explained that our 
grandparents had been murdered. My 
brother, who didn’t know, howled.” 

women’Tsorial struggleffrom* Victorian 
times to today. If you ask about parallels 
between her grandfather's career and her 
own. she stops to think: “1 remember when 
I was appointed to the Sorbonne and had to 
lecture in the huge amphitheater. 1 was 
young and shy. It took forever to overcome 
my panic, but the day I could raise my voice 
and impose myself, I thought of Victor." 

Joan Dupont is a Paris-based writer spe- 
cializing in the arts. 


ptaked if III fill 

raring ill 1] Jl*' 

T-VP U lWn » 


PEOPLE 

Jackson Family Show 
Comes Up Short on Cash 

Shadowed by Michael Jackson's 
troubles and by family squabbles, 
tire “Jackson Family Honors” tefe. . 
virion show racked up extensive 

losses and earned a scant 5100,000 

For charity. The show, broadcast in • 

February, brought in about S4 mil- 
lion in sponsorships, but the cast, t / ff*i 
crew and producer are still owed S2 '.)] 1 

million, and tbe hotel where it wg ||L' 
shot, the MGM Grand in Las Vo- . ** 
gas, is wi thholdin g some ticket re- f " ^ 
ceipts because of unsettled Wls. The . I » 
Los Angries Times reported that ibe j] v * 
shortfall for the show will be at feat ' 

$1.7 million. Jermaine JiwksfHi ac- . Lr i 1 
knowtedged there had been losses, ijU i v L 
bm said everyone would get paid. ![*' 

Burt Reynolds was hospitalized j I ?! f ! il ! 
in Los Angeles after becoming ill | III*' 
on the set of his TV show. “Evening . 

Shade." Tbe actor's publicist said « ... * 
Reynolds, 58, complained of chest • - . 

pains, dizziness and nausea. A hos- • 
pital emergency room doctor said .‘.-It ' ' 

there was no sign of heart trooble. , y ‘" 

Steven Spielberg, the Academy 1 ' 
Award-winning director, contin- 
ued his winning ways when his Fra 
TV cartoon “Annnamacs" won a 
Peabody Award for excellence hi > 
radio or television. 

□ • ; ’ - 

Marilyn Monroe’s white halter- - 
top dress that billowed up around - 
her in “The Severn Year Itch" was - J 
not stolen after all. The dress was ' 
believed to have been taken last faS ■* 
along with a cache of Monroe 
memorabilia from a warehouse 
locker rented by the family of tfe ' : 
laie acting coach Lee Strasbag 
Monroe's mentor, but the dress was 
found daring an inventory. Tha .. 

New York police found most of th? 
stolen memorabilia in another 
locker in tire same warehouse. 

□ 

The Wexford Festival Opera in 
southeast Ireland named Lai$ Per- 
ran as its new artistic director. Fer- ; ' . . 
ran, who will retain his position a : 
artistic director of the Rossini Op- "T- 
era Festival in Pesaro, Italy, taka _ 
over from Elaine Padroore, who is \. 
leaving after the fall season. ;/ . ' • 


INTERMnOim ,■ 
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Appears on Pages 8, 15 & 17 f 


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pc 1801 12/53 pc 
pc 8/40 104 pc 
sh 1407 409 a 
»h 1203 205 pc 
pc 4/39 -1/31 pc 
ah IMS -1/31 pc 
01 1407 8/43 a 

r 7/44 -2/29 01 
01 ISOS 9/48 s 
pc 10/30 2/35 pc 
01 8/43 -1/31 pc 
r 8/43 -1/31 pc 
01 1509 5/41 pc 
pc 7/44 -1/31 e 
01 6M3 104 01 

pe 9M« -ini pe 
aa 8/43 -mi 01 
ah 1203 8/43 01 
01 9/48 208 ah 

ah 9/48 206 e 
ah WOO 104 pc 


Oceania 


Forecast for Saturday through Monday, as provided by Accu-Weather. 




Sarah* 
Baft 
Hong Kong 


Jautrmm 


I UnsaanroHy 
Cold 


(UmaonUy 

Hrt 


North America 

The Northeastern United 
States will have dry, mild 
weather Uhls weekend Into 
eorty next week as cold air 
ramatns well to the north 
across eastern Canada. The 
central United Stales will 
have showers from Dales to 
St. Louis. A few showers wfl 
visit the PacBfc Northwest. 


Europe 

Northwestern Europe will 
remain windy this weekend 
wtth showers on oc cas ion. 
Puts to London w* have a 
few passing ohowera. Banlr- 
furt through Baffin and War- 
saw wit nave dry, season- 
able weather. A storm win 
bring wind and rain from 
Rome to Athens. 


Asia 

Dry. warm weedier wll pre- 
vail from Bailing eastward 
through Seoul to Tokyo Sat- 
urday Into early next week. 
Rahr and drizzle win anger 
along the southern coast at 
Chtaa, from near Hang Kong 
to TelpeL Heavy rains wfll 
soak Mindanao. Bangkok to 
Mania w« be mostly sunny 

and warm. 


Tota 
Mgh Low 
OF OF 
33/91 24/75 
24/75 12*3 
20/88 17*0 
32/89 24/75 
35/95 21/70 
17/82 B/43 

17/82 9/48 

30/88 23/73 
23/73 1702 

tB /84 am 


Mglmt 21 no 
Capa Town 25/77 
Cutanea 23/73 
Harare 24/73 
Legos 31/88 
Nwcbl 2303 
Turts 23/73 


14/57 ■ 18ZB4 
14/57 ■ 27/80 
10150 ■ 22/71 
9M8 a wee 
2B/7B pc 82/89 
11/52 I 23/77 
14/57 ■ 21/70 


Middle East 


Today T omorrow __ 

Mgh Low W Hgb low V 

Of CIF OF OF 

trm 12/53 pe 21/70 1M7 pe 

17182 9/48 pc 23/73 12/83 pe 

14*7 4/39 pe 18/BI 7/44 pc 

14*7 8148 pe 17/82 10*0 pe 

23/73 4*9 a 28/82 8/48 pc 

33/91 21/70 ■ 82*9 18*1 pc 


Latin America 

Tata Tomorrow 

Mgh Low W Mgh Low W 
OF OF OF OF 

Sumer AhM 27*0 1702 pc 28*2 21/30 pc 

Cram 29/84 24/75 pe 29/84 24/75 pc 

Una 28/79 20*8 pe 27*0 21/70 pe 

MadeoCRy 24*3 12*3 pc 28/77 9/48 pc 

RbdaJmko 28*2 22/71 ah 28/82 23/73 pc 

Sarttago 28/78 11*2 pe 30/86 18*5 a 


North America 


Boakai 

Chicago 

Drawer 

{Met 

HoneMu 

Houetoo 

UnAngta 


c 4/39 
I a 19*6 

pe 10*0 
pc 13*8 
pe 18*1 
pc 14/57 
pc 28*2 

■ 32/71 

■ 24/75 
pc 27*0 

pe 11*2 

pc 8/48 
pc 28*2 
pe re/ei 








Depth latn. Res. Snow Last 
L U Plates Plain Stale Snow 


Andorra 

Pas data Casa 70120 
SoMau 45 140 

Austria 

Ischgl 20170 

Kitzbuhei 0 as 

Obergtirgl 20 100 

Saafoach 0 45 

SLAnton 15 320 

ft we e 

Afpedxuez 90 290 

Las Arcs 55245 

Avoriaz 130 170 

Chamonix 0 380 

Courchevel » 175 

Les Deux Alpes 20300 
[sola 30 so 

MAribel 10 155 

LaPlagne no 265 

Senre Chevalier 15140 
Tignes 105 235 

Val d'tedra 70 275 

ValThorens 60 220 

menueni 

Garmlsch 0 280 

Oberstdorf 0180 


22/71 14/57 r 22/71 13*8 pe 
23/73 10*1 S 2*/7S 17*2 pc 


Lagan* ft-mmy, po-pnrtV dowdy. c-Ooudy. s/rMowms, UnmmratDrms, t-reH. 0-snow lurries, 
an-snow, Woo. W-WwBwf. AI mips, foraeaete ml data provided by Acou-tanher, Inc. 01894 


Borneo 

Cervinla 

Cortina 

Coumtayeur 


0115 Fair CtsdSprng 21/3 13/17 Wto open. 70cm m 2000m 

,30 245 Fair Open Spmg 17/3 Mitts open, some ben patches 

0 55 Fair Clod Spmg 6/2 20/40 Ms open. Smiled Biting 

20 100 Fair Clad Spmg 17/3 25/2? Ms epan, upper stapes ok 






fair Open Spmg 26 '3 Rosart Mfy open, good siting 
Fair Sonw Spmg 26 , 3 AO 22 Ms open, good but patchy 

Fax Open Wei 26<3 AB4QUtsopen. goo d spring doing 
Fair Chd Spmg 28/0 32/64 fills open. Rsss Thumak 
Fair Open Ver 28/3 AS 22 Ms open, goodn slopes 
poor CtsdSprng 27/3 AS Ms open, patchy commons 
Good Some Steh 26/3 31/35 Ms open, goad tcptfcpes 

Fair Open Var 28/3 63 > B8 BSs open, good siting 
Good Open Spmg 26/3 56/64 SSs open. Good +2300m 
Fair Open Hvy 26/3 AS 41 Ms open, tap slopes s6H ok 
Fair poor Var 26*3 39'48 Happen. G. ktontotsgood 
Goad Open Var 26/3 AB 64 Mts aptm. good siting 
Good Some Spmg 4/3 20/63 Ms open, tap stapes goad 
Fair Open Spmg 26/3 23/28 60s open, n sppas ok 
Fair Open Spmg 26/3 48/49 Ms and 63*68 tuns open 
Good Open Var 26/3 101/112 Ms open, goad +2200 
Fair Steh Hvy 21/3 64/77 Ms open, s slopes poor 
Good Open Var 26/3 S0/S5 Ms open, great sking 

Good Open Var 26/3 4S 'SI Ms open, gnml + 2300m 

Good Open Var 26/3 ABSOHflsopon.nslopBSgood 

Good Cted Var 28/3 77/38 Stts opan. Zi&spttzegaod 

Fair Clsd Var 26/3 23/27 SOs open, top runs good 


Selva 

Sestriftrc 

Norw a y 

Geifo 


Depth Min. Rea. Snow Lost 
L U Ptatea Plata State Snow 


5 50 Fair Some Spmg 4/3 51/75 sits open, slush tn pm I 
35 95 Fair Open Spmg 3/3 13/21 Ms open, eartysm ok I - 

AS 90 Good Open Var 23/3 AS 18 Ms open, great condfflusl r 


Spain 

Baquetra Beret 95215 

Switzerland 

A/osa 70 80 Goad 

Crans Montana 10 100 Fair 
Davos 30 185 Gcxjd 

Grtndeiwaid o 55 poor 

SLMorftz 20185 Fair 

Verttar 5 285 Good 

Wangen 0 60 Worn 

Zermatt 10120 Good 


Fair Open Spmg 26/3 AS 22 and 4Q/43 pistes opec]-' 


Open Spmg 26/3 AS 16 Stoopon. top good si as 
Cted VBr 26/3 35/40 fi»s open, good +2200* 
Open Var 27/3 35/36Ms open, good piste d&t 
Cted Var 26/3 25/33 Ms open, 6nmd Sting 
Worn Spmg 16/3 AS 64 Ms open, n slopes good 
Osd Vat 26/3 34/39/Uts open, good + 2200a 
Cted Var 26/3 16/23 Ms open. Umoed siting 
poor Var 25/3 70 *73 Ms open, good tiding . 

Open Spmg 25/3 ABB Ms open 
Open Pwdr 28/3 Rosort My open 
Open Pcfcd 25/3 26/30 Ms open 
Open Var 25/3 AS 14 Ms open 
Open Var 27/3 AS 19 Bits open 
Open Pwdr 27/3 AS 10 Mis open 
Open Pwdr 2a/3 AB2SMsopsn 


Whistler BO 275 Good Open Spmg 21/3 AS Ms and pistes open ' 

Key: UIDepth In cm on lower and upper stopes. Mtn. Ptstes.Mountamside pistes. M. 
PWasfluns leading to resort village, ArtArtMcfal snow. 

agpons suppBedtythe Ski Club of Greet BML 


US . 

Aspen 

Jackson Hole 
Mammoth 
Park City 
Steamboat 
Tel lu ride 
VaU 




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